Clinical Chemistry test 3
Terms in this set (56)
True or false? Serum uric acid levels may be elevated in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
True or false? An enzymatic method for creatinine on the Vitros (Kodak Ektachem) analyzer uses the reagent enzyme creatinine amidohydrolase.
In the commonly used ("Caraway") colorimetric method for uric acid in serum, interference from other reducing substances such as ascorbic acid is minimized by the addition of:
Urea can be measured in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
The Caraway method
True or false? Serum urea levels are less affected by diet and metabolism than are serum creatinine levels.
True or false? Indirect urea methods begin with the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia.
Which of the following best describes the correct collection and handling conditions for a blood ammonia measurement?
Draw sodium heparin tube, place in ice bath immediately, separate cells and plasma in refrigerated centrifuge, immediately remove plasma and freeze if analytical testing is delayed
Is synthesized from CO2 and ammonia
A toxic condition involving a very high serum level of urea and creatinine accompanied by failure of the three main functions of the renal system is referred to as:
Azotemia refers to:
An increase in urea in blood
The major causes of decreased plasma urea concentration include:
Low protein intake and sever liver disease
Monitoring of _______ in patients on chemotherapy due to leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma is necessary to avoid nephrotoxicity.
Serum uric acid
The abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation considers all of the following variables EXCEPT:
Urine creatinine concentration
Of the following drug therapies, which is MOST likely to interfere with the Jaffe chemistry for measuring creatinine?
True or false? In a "kinetic" or "rate" reaction, one spectrophotometric measurement is taken at the end of an incubation period.
The most sensitive enzymatic indicator for liver damage from ethanol intake is:
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)
When myocardial infarction occurs, the first enzyme to reach peak elevation is:
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are both elevated in which of the following diseases?
An elevated aldolase level and normal myoglobin is most indicative of:
Progressive muscular dystrophy
When a purified enzyme is used as a reagent, such as urease in the measurement of urea, the enzyme must be ________________ concentration so that the reaction follows _________________ kinetics.
The major cellular origin of acid phosphatase activity in serum is:
Which of the following methods of measuring enzyme activity utilizes an increase in absorbance at 340 nm as an indicator reaction?
"Forward" LD reaction
Which of the following enzymes has multiple molecular forms (isoenzymes) whose clinical significance is used in diagnosis?
Lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and alkaline phosphatase
One extracellular enzyme whose serum activity is measured clinically is:
In the spectrophotometric determination of AST, malic dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of:
Oxalacetate to malate
The greatest tissue source of CK is:
Which of the following enzymes detects very early changes in liver cell damage?
Which of the following enzyme tests is most affected by "hemolysis?
One International Unit is defined as one __________ of substrate converted to product per ___________.
Which of the following is NOT considered a coenzyme?
Which of the following enzymes requires chloride (Cl-) as an activator?
The enzyme that is inhibited by hemoglobin is:
Prostatic acid phosphatase measurement has been replaced by:
Of the following, the only clinically analyzed enzyme in the urine is:
In the Szasz method for gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), the typical receptor molecule is:
A reaction rate assay measures enzyme ____________________; an endpoint assay measures enzyme ______________________.
A reaction in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formed from reagent NADH or NADPH is ________ and may be measured by a(an) ________ in absorbance at 340 nm.
During 3 glucose tests an hour apart on a patient, capillary blood is substituted for venous blood for one of the timed samples. What results would you expect for the sample, as compared to results expected for venous blood drawn at the same time?
Capillary blood will yield higher results than venous blood
The major non-glucose-reducing substance present in serum is:
Which of the following methods for glucose results in the formation of NADPH for measurement?
The formation of glucose from compounds like fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids is called:
The ____________ form of glucose is responsible for its reducing properties.
The reference method for glucose determination is:
In the Beckman Analyzer for glucose, H2O2 is consumed in side reactions by:
Catalase and ethyl alcohol
A serum specimen for glucose measurement was allowed to stand unseparated on the clot for 6 hours at room temperature before testing. If the original glucose concentration was 200 mg/dL, what approximate results would be expected after 3 hours?
β-glucose + O2 ----?-----> D-glucono-δ-lactone + H2O2
The preferred collection tube for preservation of glucose is:
The following glucose tolerance test results are indicative of what state? Glucose values as assayed by glucose oxidase method are fasting, 130 mg/dL; 60 minutes, 225 mg/dL; and 120 minutes, 205 mg/dL.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus may be described by all of the following EXCEPT:
Insulin may be described by all of the following EXCEPT:
Active in its C-Peptide form
Which of the following statements may be associated with the activity of insulin?
Stimulates glycogenesis in the liver
The glucose value of a NORMAL 2-hour post-prandial serum specimen, as compared to the reference range for a fasting serum glucose, should be:
Approximately the same as the normal fasting glucose level
Laboratory tests are performed on a post-menopausal, 57-year-old woman as part of an annual physical examination. The patient's 2-hour post-prandial glucose is 220 mg/dL and serum insulin is 15 μU/ml (normal = 6-26). Based on this information, the patient would be classified as:
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
Which of the following inhibits glycolysis and glucose uptake by muscle cells and causes a rise in blood glucose concentration?
A diabetic patient is prescribed a daily regimen of insulin. Which of the following laboratory procedures would be of most value in determining the degree of glucose control over a 2-month period?
Glycation of glomerular basement membranes and capillaries is the main nephropathic effect from:
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