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Terms in this set (46)
Term used to describe the immigrants who settled in Pakistan, typically in Sindh, during and after Partition. They were typically educated and Urdu-speaking and this migrant population often came into conflict with native Sindhis. They were considered "foreign" to the country and brought into question who was truly a citizen of Pakistan.
Literally, "undivided India". This call for unification of the subcontinent orginated during the Indian independence movement and stood in opposition to the call for Partition. Later, the cause was adopted by Hindu nationalist parties as a call for unifying the continent on a religious basis, harkening back to ancient India and a common "Hinduness" of the subcontinent.
Hindu nationalist party founded in 1925 representing right-wing Hinduism. During Partition and in instances after, the RSS has often been accussed of involvement in instigating Hindu-Muslim riots They stood in opposition to the Indian Constitution because it did not include Manu's laws - an ancient Hindu text.
Party during independence that sought to prevent Partition.
Party founded in the early 20th century that went on to become the primary party in Pakistan during the early years after its founding. During Partition, the Muslim League was led by Jinnah and advocated for a separate state for Muslims, although the nature of this demand shifted from a desire for a loosely federated state system to a separate country. The Muslim League also faced challenges in Pakistan from Islamic religious parties and Bengali linguistic nationalism, showing the position of ML politicians as largely secular educated Urdu speaking elite.
Mass civil disobedience campaign led by Gandhi that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India. This nonviolent resistance became Gandhi's legacy and formed the basis for Gandhian politics and protest during and after independence.
Conservative Islamic political party. During the writing of the Pakistani constitution, this party opposed Liaquat Ali Khan's idea for a secular state, arguing that Islam was a tolerant religion and that minorities would be protected under a Islamic state. This demonstrated the conflict in Pakistan as a state created for Muslims vs being a Muslim state.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 that swept the 1937 elections in India. Led the independence movement and went on to become the major party in power in independent India until the party loses power in the 60s, seen as a party that has lost its ability to enact meaningful change. This also reflects the unrest within the population in India, as the 60s saw widespread protest and dissatisfaction with the status quo -> desire a change in leadership.
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire. During independence, the rulers were given a choice as to which country they wanted to join and many rulers desired their own country, especially in Kashmir and Hyderabad. The eventual assimilation of both of these into independent India both invovled the eployment of troops into the areas and set a precedent for military use of force to handle popular unrest in India.
Custodian of Evacuee Property
This was a system set up by the Indian and Pakistani governments to try and manage property left behind by Partition evacuees. This set up the category of "intending evacuee", which broke down along religious lines in both countries (Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India would get this desgination), showing the role of religion in determinign belonging in both of these early states. Before this system was set up, the management of property was often done individually by people, but the custodian system set up a surveillance system where by neighbors could "spy" on neighbors who had not moved out of property yet.
This was the group of politicians and experts involved in advising the government about ways to develop the Indian economy. The Commission was focused on state management of the economy and had a socialist bend. This showed how the Indian state saw itself at the beginning, as needed rational, scientific reasons and methods to improve the economy. It was also a clear rejection of Gandhian economics.
Made in 1944 by industrialists in Bombay. Previously, industrialists had supported Congress during the independence movement, but now that Congress was imposing controls on industry, they began to oppose the regime as well.
National Planning Committee, 1937
Group of experts and elite who proposed a plan for the Indian economy. This showed that economic improvement was seen as a technical and not political issue. It also set the precedent for state planning of the economy and rejection of most parts of Gandhian economic ideology.
Import Substitution Industrialization
An economic system that attempts to strengthen a country's industrial power by restricting foreign imports. This was a part of Gandhian economic ideology (the idea of khadi and creation of local, homegrown economies) and the only part that was adopted by the Indian state in planning. *
A farmer movement during the 50s in order to redistribute land where wealthy landowners were encouraged to donate land to landless farmers. However, this land was not fertile and couldn't be sold to farmers but was given through Bhoodan Acts that took away this right from the beneficiary. This further illustrates the lack of power landless labourers had in villages in India, and explains migration en mass to urban centers.
Conservative party in opposition to Nehru and Congress Party's transition to more socialist policies. Favored market-based economy, not laissez-faire. However, this party's main failure was that its leadership was comprised of landowners who had land taken from them, but did not manage to gain support from middle and upper classes especially as they were the beneficiaries of State Planning efforts.
Bhakra Nangal Dam
One of the first dams built as part of the Green Revolution in the 60s and 70s. The fact that the dam was help up as this huge accomplishment speaks to the fact that science and technology was seen as modernizing and the way forward for India and its agriculture. Additionally, dams were needed due to the increase in wheat and rice production that India saw during this time.
A period of time when India invested in "moderninzing" its agriculture and improving agricultural yield. This led to the creation of large regional disparities in prosperity depending on what regions could grow wheat and rice well, such as Punjab. Furthermore, it sparked environmental movements as the revolution's impact on crop diversity and nature became clear.
Group of peasant who revolted in Naxalbari in West Bengal in 1967 who were Communist leaders who wanted a revolution without working within state structures. This led to the Indian state legalizing violence against Naxalites -> increased police power across the country and reentrenched th emilitary as a state weapon against popular unrest. This also showed the connection of students in India (typically the leaders of these movements) were connected to other movements happening around the world.
Refers to the permit given by the Indian and Pakistani governments in order to allow travel between the countries. This went back to the question of who was a citizen in each country and how that broke down across religious lines often.
Hindu Code Bill
Tried to limit discrimination against women, eliminate castes. Ambedkar and Nehru were big proponents while the Hindu Mahasabha and Sikhs and Muslims opposed it. This goes back to the question about the role of religion in the new states created after Partition.
Created in response to the creation of the Muslim League to protect Hindu rights. Widely protested the Hindu Code and shows the rise of Hindu politics seeing themselves as threatened and needing protection.
Muslim Family Laws Ordinance
Established in 1961 in Pakistan as an amendment to the Constitution to reform family life. This was passed under military rule and was largely a shadow play. Spurred a large debate over whether the law was a misinterpretation of Islam, but ended up having little impact on women's lives.
Directive Principles of State Policy
Included in the Constitution of India as guidelines for framing lawas and policies. Although this is not implemented to any significant degree, the Principles show the creation of a welfare state that is later seen in justification of planning and the emergency.
Procedure established by law
in the Indian constitution instead of "due process of law". Due process involves fairness as opposed to this which just presumes that just what is in law will apply equally to all. This allows for law to be adjusted and then action justified by saying it is a procedure established by law.
Hyderabad. Site of linguistic resistance and also a Communist uprising which justifies the Indian state sending military forces into the are and then securing Hyderbad as part of the Indian nation.
Dravidian lingustic resistance in the South of India. Win elections in the 60s. Want Hindu law destroyed and recognize postcard marriages.
A sect of Muslims in Lahore, Believed that there was a prophet after Mohammad. There was a question about whether they were really Muslim - citizenship in Pakistan called into question.
Sardar (Balochistan), Khan (NWFP), Vadhera (Sindh)
Landed elites in this region that became supporters of the government agains separatist movements in the regions. Remanants of feudalism in the region.
States Reorganization Commission
a body constituted by the Central Government of India in 1953 to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries. Decided not to oganize based on language or culture exclusively in order to maintian a national balance - leads to trouble with ethnic struggle and resistance.
Efficinet slum resettlment town built very quickly on the outskirts of Karachi. However, has no pulbing or water or public transportation so everyone who is resettled is actually just inconvenienced.
Who is a citizen in Pakistan, response to Ahmadi unrest. Condemmed by ulamas and advocated for a separation of religion and state.
Abducted Women Program
Program to resettle women abducted on either side of the border. Showed the interpretation of women as the honor of the nation and returning them was to save women from dishonor. Sparked debate about whether it was the state's responsibility to intervene and move them forcibly if they didn't want to.
Military Business industrial complex
Something about this is how pakistan was and this is why the army became so powerful in politics.
Established in the 50s and allowed army to easily create and run new enterprises. So, now, Industrialization is controlled by the army and this creates a welfare state for the army. -> seeing army's role as integral and giving them the unusual amount of power they had in Pakistan.
Section that has been reproduced in every Pakistani constitution detailing the middle ground between a secular and Islamic state. Declares sovergeinty by God but that the state will not enforce Islamic law. This is upheld by Liaquat Ali Khan as the way to move forward with the government, but opposed by ulamas and Mulslim League opponents.
Party that sweeps elections in 1971 in East Pakistan. Led by Mujib. Demonstrates the growth of Bengali nationalism and the importance of regional and cultural identity in Bengal as opposed to a religious identity (the party was secular).
Coalition of regional leaders that took power in Indian government after the decline of the Congress Party. Catapulted Indira Gandhi to power as they chose her to oppose their opposition from Morarji Desai.
a tree-hugging project by women in India in the 1970s in areas where locals have been demanding access to forests rather than the land being government owned. This is a demand for autonomy as much as it is a struggle for environmentalism.
Also a larger critique of industrialism.
Anti-Prise Rise Movement
Movement led by middle class women protesting the high prices of commodities by using peaceful protest methods like the gherau. This makes it much harder to mobilize police against thema nd this runs for three years which surprises the politicians. Shows civil unrest; also shows the reliance on police force and the inability for the government to suppress that without large police action (possible explanation for Emergency)
Mathura Rape Case
Case of a tribal woman raped while in police custody and the policeman was acquited. Due to societal perceptions about the fact that tribal women are promiscuous and that they cannot be believed. Women realized that rape and the decision in this case was related to power in society. This case became so important because it is tied into societal power but also questions about the unchecked authority of the state and people who work for it.
Occurs in the early 70s, requires massive force to suppress what becomes an extremely violent strike. This leads to the ideology that exceptional force is required to keep labor mobilization in check (Emergency)
Dravidian Movement/Self-Respect Movement
aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights, and encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society. Draws upon legacy of caste based agitation in South India esp Tamil Nadu. Also extends the term Dalit to include anyone repressed by society.
Old guard of Congress not following Mrs. Gandhi.
Split off, under Indira Gandhi.
20 Point Program
Mrs. Gandhi's plan to improve situation of the people; extension of planning (drawing on legacies). Rebranding of the Emergency to something that is more populist -> achieves economic goals for the disadvantaged.
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