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FinCrime3 Interpol

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Describe at a high level Interpol including what it does
Interpol is the world's largest international police organisation and currently has 190 member countries.

Interpol facilitates cross-border police co-operation, and supports and assists all organisations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat international crime.
Why is Interpol a useful ally?
From a 'combating international financial crime' perspective, Interpol are a useful ally because they facilitate international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries.
In accordance with what are Interpol's actions taken?
Action is taken
1. within the limits of existing laws in different countries and
2. in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Interpol's constitution prohibits 'any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.'
Why is Interpol effective?
Interpol is effective primarily because of: Cooperation, Communication, and Contacts
Describe Interpol projects
The Financial Crime Unit at Interpol is combating international financial crime through several projects, which aim to gather information, build up networks between law enforcement bodies and seek possible co-operation with the commercial sector, such as the current private sector initiative against lottery scams.
The projects are designed around the concept of a co-ordination role for Interpol, to provide assistance to international investigations as well as strategic support to the law enforcement community, in order to combat significant fraud phenomena.
Describe the structure of Interpol
Interpol (whose correct full name is 'The International Criminal Police Organisation - INTERPOL') comprises of the following:

Strategy
•General Assembly
•Executive Committee
The General Assembly and the Executive Committee form the organisation's Governance.

Implementation
•General Secretariat
•National Central Bureaus

Oversight
•Advisers
•The Commission for the Control of Interpol's Files
Describe further the General Assembly of Interpol
General Assembly

The General Assembly is Interpol's supreme governing body, it meets annually and comprises of delegates appointed by each member country (190 at the time of writing).

The assembly takes all important decisions related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programmes.
Describe further the Executive Committee of Interpol
Executive Committee

13 member committee is elected by the General Assembly, and comprises the president, three vice-presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
Describe further the General Secretariat of Interpol
General Secretariat

In Lyon, France, the General Secretariat operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the Secretary General.

Officials from more than 80 countries work side-by-side in any of the Organisation's four official languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish.

The Secretariat has seven regional offices across the world; in Argentina, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, El Salvador, Kenya, Thailand and Zimbabwe, along with Special Representatives at the United Nations in New York and at the European Union in Brussels. It is worth noting that Interpol only went 24/7 after the 9|11 attacks in America. Until then Interpol worked a standard 9am to 5pm week.
Describe further the National Central Bureas of Interpol
National Central Bureaus (NCB)

Each Interpol member country maintains a National Central Bureau staffed by national law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact point for the General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas investigations and the location and apprehension of fugitives.
Describe further the Advisors of Interpol
Advisers

These are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.
Describe further Interpol's Commission for the Control of Interpol's Files including its threefold mandate
Commission for the Control of Interpol's Files

This is an independent body whose mandate is threefold:

1) to ensure that the processing of personal information by Interpol complies with the Organisation's regulations,
2) to advise Interpol on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter involving the processing of personal information, and
3) to process requests concerning the information contained in Interpol's files.
Why does Interpol assist in combating international financial crime in developing economies
Interpol assists in combating international financial crime in developing economies because it recognises that these may be specific targets for international gangs.

Criminal Organisations are aware of the fact that weaker, developing states, remote areas within stable states, and post-conflict zones are environments in which they can operate optimally.

In these circumstances, law enforcement often finds itself less powerful than the organised criminal groups in terms of financial resources, expertise, corruption and freedom to operate with few bureaucratic barriers.
Describe important obstacles to fighting transnational organized crime.
Practical and legal barriers to gathering and sharing vital police information become important obstacles to fighting transnational organized crime.

Post-conflict zones, including Afghanistan, Kosovo and Bosnia, are especially vulnerable to these problems.

Financial crimes affect private individuals, companies, organisations and even states, and have a negative impact on the entire economic and social system through the considerable loss of money incurred.
Name some areas of financial crime with which Interpol has a keen interest
There are many different areas of financial crime with which Interpol has a keen interest;
1. payment cards,
2. money laundering,
3. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR),
4. counterfeit currency and security documents, and
5. new technologies used in financial fraud.
Why does the crime of counterfeiting continues to present a potential danger to national economies and financial losses to consumers?
Today, the crime of counterfeiting continues to present a potential danger to national economies and financial losses to consumers. Recent developments in photographic and computer technology, as well as printing devices, have made the production of counterfeit money relatively easy, thereby increasing the potential threat.
What is the Interpol Counterfeit and Security Documents Branch and what does it do?
The Interpol Counterfeit and Security Documents Branch (CSDB) is responsible for establishing programs that provide forensic support, operational assistance, and technical databases in order to assist the 188 member countries of Interpol regarding counterfeit currency.

With this responsibility, Interpol CSDB continuously assesses existing measures, with the goal of implementing new ones that may provide an "added value" to the international community in addressing counterfeit currency on a global scale.
In the context of Interpol, the major challenge to protect currencies from counterfeiters has increasingly become more dependant on partnerships - which ones?
The major challenge to protect currencies from counterfeiters has increasingly become more dependant on partnerships between law enforcement agencies, financial institutions and central banks, as well as with the security printing industry and high-grade supplier's community.
What is a result of these partnerships to protect currencies from counterfeiters in the context of Interpol?
These partnerships bridge geographic, jurisdictional, cultural and organisational divisions, which were once impediments toward providing comprehensive and co-coordinated solutions for combating modern financial crimes.

Therefore, Interpol, through its Counterfeit and Security Documents Branch (CSDB), recognizes and fosters cooperation with other official law enforcement entities, such as the United States Secret Service (USSS) and Europol; as well as with international organisations and central banks, such as the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), European Central Bank (ECB), the US Federal Reserve Bank (FRB), and the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG); and with innovative leaders in private industry.
Prevention of Currency Counterfeiting - describe 7 services Interpol provides
Since the 1929 Geneva Convention, which recognised the ICPO-General Secretariat as the International Central Office for the suppression of counterfeit currency, Interpol member countries have been able to call upon the General Secretariat for the following services:
1) Designating, analysing and storing genuine currency specimens and counterfeit banknotes.
2) Analytical reports circulated among Interpol member countries.
3) Notes analysis determining whether suspect specimens are genuine or counterfeit
4) Newly discovered counterfeits allocated international indicatives (except for USD and Euro).
5) Yearly—Publishing descriptions of new counterfeit banknotes.
6) Reconciled tables of statistics on worldwide counterfeit currency trends.
7) Organising and/or participating in international counterfeit currency training courses, seminars and conferences, in order to stay abreast of latest technologies and to share best practices.
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