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Terms in this set (57)
Your ability to lift that heavy couch would bee increased by which type of exercise?
Which are ways in which muscle names have been derived?
attachments, size, function, location
Someone who sticks out a thumb to hitch a ride is ________ the thumb.
Which of the following insert on the arm?
Which of the following muscles attach to the hip bones?
the tense, contracted state of a muscle
occurs when muscles are unable to contract
varies directly with the strength of the stimulus
one neuron and all the skeletal muscle it stimulates
What is the major function of muscle?
to contract or shorten which causes movement
How do isotonic and isometric contractions differ?
isotonic- muscle tension same, muscle shortens
isometric- muscle tension increases, muscle doesn't shorten
List 6 of the 12 body movements.
abduction, adduction, contraction, flexion, extension, rotation
How is a prime mover different from a synergist muscle? How can a prime mover also be considered an antagonist?
prime mover- prime cause of movement
synergist- takes off some movement from prime prime mover or takes over unwanted movment
What is the function of tendons? How is a tendon different from an aponeurosis?
tendons connect muscles to bones tendons and aponeurosis differ in size
What is the effect of aging on skeletal muscles?
loses mass and strength
Muscle tones keeps muscles healthy. What is muscles tone, and what causes it? What happens to a muscle that loses its tone?
the contraction of muscles when it is relaxed, it can become weaker
What happens to muscles when they are exercised regularly? Exercised vigorously as in weight lifting? Not used?
they are healthy and endured; they become stronger and more durable; they become weak and more vulnerable to injury
A skeletal muscle is attached to bones as two points. Name each of the attachment points and indicate which is moveable and which is non movable.
insertion point- movable
Compare skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles as to their microscopic anatomy, location, and arrangements in body organs, and function in the body.
skeletal- long, striated, attached to bones, voluntary;
smooth- no striations, found in hollow, visceral organs, involuntary;
cardiac- striations and branched, heart, involuntary
Transparent covering over the anterior portion of the eye.
Large, complex sensory organs or small, localized clusters of receptors.
The glad that produces tears
Bright light, color receptors
Dim light visual receptors
Visible, colored part of the eye
Antibacterial enzyme in tears
Projections on the tongue which contain taste buds
Biconcave, flexible eye structure used to focus light on the retina
the pigmented layer of the eye also called the vascular tunic
Where on the tongue do you sense each of the following: sweet, bitter, sour, salty.
What causes myopia? What causes hyperopia?
Myopia- cornea is curvy, too long
Hyperopia- Too short, to far back
Classify each of the following senses as being photoreceptors, chemoreceptors or mechanoreceptors: Hearing, touch, smell, and taste
What is the "blind spot"? Include the technical term in your answer.
Optic disk; When light is focused on it , we lose view
Discuss the functions of the Eustachian tube and tempanic membrane.
Eustachian- aerates the middle ear
Tempanic membrane- sound waves, vibrations
Describe the anatomy of the central nervous system (what is consists of, special features, etc.)
consists of the spine and brain; both protected by bone, wrapped in protective membranes and surrounded with cerebrospinal that is produced in the ventricles of the brain
Describe the 4 lobes of the cerebrum. Include what they are responsible for in terms of function.
frontal- walking, speech, intellect, personality;
temporal- hearing, vision, memory, interpretation;
parietal- interpreting sensory info receptors, long term memory
Discuss the structure and functions of the spinal cord?
holds the cerebrospinal fluid. center for many reflex arcs and also sends sensory information to the brain and receives motor output.
Discuss the peripheral nervous system. Include the number of nerves and structure.
PNS contains nerves and ganglia. sensory nerves carry info to the CNS, motor nerves carry info away. 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs spinal nerves
Distinguish the differences b/t the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
sympathetic- prepares body for stress;
parasympathetic- restores normal balance
List the function of the nervous system.
coordinate action of your body, ensure effective behavior, maintain the internal environment within safe limits
Describe the structure of a neuron.
composed of dendrites, a nucleus, and an axon
List the types of neurons.
dendrites, cell body, axon, nodes of ranvier, neurilemma, Schwann cell, Axon bulb
Discuss what happens during membrane polarization.
when axon is not conducting nerve impulses the inside is negative (resting potential)
What happens during an "all-or-none" response?
in response to a stimulus they either activate or don't fire or all
Discuss the subdivision of the somatic nervous system. You must include 5 different points in order to get full credit.
serves the skin, skeletal muscles, and tendons. brain is always involved in voluntary but it may not be required in involuntary. control exists in cerebrum and cerebellum
Discuss Parkinson's disease.
inadequate production of dopamine in the brian. causes involuntary muscle contraction and tremors
Discuss multiple sclerosis.
degeneration of the myelin sheath; partial paralysis, double vision, speech problems
Describe what drug abuse does to neurotransmitters.
causes leakage of a synaptic vesicle, prevent release of neurotransmitters, bind to receptor preventing the uptake of a neurotransmitter
Discuss the use of alcohol and how it affects the nervous system. Include inhibitions, disease, etc.
may affect the inhibiting transmitter. lacks nutrients. can cause cirrhosis of the liver and fetal alcohol syndrome
Discuss how cocaine affect the nervous system. Include the dangers, tolerance, etc.
prevents uptake of dopamine by the presynaptic membrane. highly likely to cause dependence and overdosing. can cause seizures and cardiac arrest
Discuss reflexes. Include at least one common type of reflex.
reflex- when response is made at the spinal level, protect body from injury; ex. touch something hot- pull hand away
Discuss how nicotine affects the nervous system.
causes neurons to release dopamine. increases heart rate, blood pressure, and causes digestive tract mobility
actor with Parkinson's
Michael J. Fox
movie where procedure takes place
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