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List the three layers of the meninges.

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

What is the largest part of the brain?


What part of the brain is responsible for vision?

occipital lobe

What part of the brain is responsible for auditory interpretation (hearing)?

Temporal lobe

What part of the brain is associated with emotional sensations?

Frontal lobe

What regulates body temperature, water balance, sleep cycle, appetite, and sexual arousal and is situated below the thalamus?

reticular activating system

What lies inside the spinal column in the spinal cavity and extends from the occipital bone down to the bottom to the bottom of the first lumbar vertebra?

Spinal cord

What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?

1) Keeping the brain and spinal cord afloat and cushioning it during normal head movements and trauma. 2)Providing a pathway for removal of metabolites from the brain extracellular fluid into the venous system. 3) Sustaining proper osmotic and ionic balances in the ECF for normal neuronal function, 4) Maintaining normal intracranial pressure

Where does your "fight-or-flight" response come from?

Sympathetic Nervous System

What regulates the body's automatic functions in a way that restores homesostatis?

Autonomic System

What transmits impulses was from the brain and spinal cord?

Motor Neurons

How many pairs of nerves are attached to the spinal cord?

31 pairs

List the divisions of the brain and list at least two functions of each.

Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Brainstem


Largest and uppermost portion of the brain Controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, voluntary movements


Attached to the brain stem Maintains muscle tone Coordinates normal movement and balance


Located between cerebrum and midbrain - Consists of thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland


Relay station for sensory information going to the cerebral cortex for interpretation


Maintains homeostasis by regulating vital activities

Brain Stem

Region between diencephalon and spinal cord - Consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata - Serves as pathway for impulses between brain and spinal cord - Controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate

What is Parkinson's?

Degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms Classic Symptoms: stooped posture with body flexed forward, bowed head, shuffling gait, pill-rolling gestures, expression-less mask-like facial appearance

What causes herpes zoster or shingles?

Acute viral infection characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway producing painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin along these nerve pathways. Seen mainly in adults

What is another name for the limbic system?

The "reward" system of the brain is called the limbic system. It rewards you by releasing a brain chemical called dopamine, which produces feelings of pleasure.

What is arachnoid mater?

middle protective membrane - avascular layer -named for the spider-like struts (trabeculae) that connect the arachnoid to the underlying pia mater

What is the length of the spinal cord?

length in adults = 16 to 18 inches

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