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Chapter 8 - AP

List the three layers of the meninges.
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What is the largest part of the brain?
What part of the brain is responsible for vision?
occipital lobe
What part of the brain is responsible for auditory interpretation (hearing)?
Temporal lobe
What part of the brain is associated with emotional sensations?
Frontal lobe
What regulates body temperature, water balance, sleep cycle, appetite, and sexual arousal and is situated below the thalamus?
reticular activating system
What lies inside the spinal column in the spinal cavity and extends from the occipital bone down to the bottom to the bottom of the first lumbar vertebra?
Spinal cord
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
1) Keeping the brain and spinal cord afloat and cushioning it during normal head movements and trauma. 2)Providing a pathway for removal of metabolites from the brain extracellular fluid into the venous system. 3) Sustaining proper osmotic and ionic balances in the ECF for normal neuronal function, 4) Maintaining normal intracranial pressure
Where does your "fight-or-flight" response come from?
Sympathetic Nervous System
What regulates the body's automatic functions in a way that restores homesostatis?
Autonomic System
What transmits impulses was from the brain and spinal cord?
Motor Neurons
How many pairs of nerves are attached to the spinal cord?
31 pairs
List the divisions of the brain and list at least two functions of each.
Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Brainstem
Largest and uppermost portion of the brain Controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, voluntary movements
Attached to the brain stem Maintains muscle tone Coordinates normal movement and balance
Located between cerebrum and midbrain - Consists of thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland
Relay station for sensory information going to the cerebral cortex for interpretation
Maintains homeostasis by regulating vital activities
Brain Stem
Region between diencephalon and spinal cord - Consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata - Serves as pathway for impulses between brain and spinal cord - Controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
What is Parkinson's?
Degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms Classic Symptoms: stooped posture with body flexed forward, bowed head, shuffling gait, pill-rolling gestures, expression-less mask-like facial appearance
What causes herpes zoster or shingles?
Acute viral infection characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway producing painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin along these nerve pathways. Seen mainly in adults
What is another name for the limbic system?
The "reward" system of the brain is called the limbic system. It rewards you by releasing a brain chemical called dopamine, which produces feelings of pleasure.
What is arachnoid mater?
middle protective membrane - avascular layer -named for the spider-like struts (trabeculae) that connect the arachnoid to the underlying pia mater
What is the length of the spinal cord?
length in adults = 16 to 18 inches