Global City Midterm Week 1
Terms in this set (12)
How does the report categorize cities? The four categories of cities were determined by specific quantitative measures. What other criteria would you add to categorize these?
Struggling, Emerging, Thriving, and Stabilizing. Categorized by current income, projected population, economic growth. Compared current GDP per capita with the projected growth in GDP per capita between 2015 and 2030 relative to the projected growth in urban population over the same time period. I would add criteria related to infrastructure and social development of an urban area—how accessible and well established are public urban services (water, waste treatment, transportations, etc.)
What are the economic and environmental impacts of communities' self-provisioning of essential services?
When people lack core services, they revert to habits that cause overuse, congestion, and inefficiencies—equitable access promotes sustainability. Gaps in the provisions of urban services (land use, housing, water and sanitation, energy, and transportation) leads to illegal, informal, or unregulated self-provisioning by residents. This imposes high individual and societal costs resulting in inefficiencies, environmental degradation, and poor health (WRR, pg.5).
What is meant by the phrase "urbanization of poverty?" How does the "urbanization of poverty" vary by geographic region?
A larger share of the world's poor now resides in urban areas and many of these cities have some of the lowest municipal budgets per capita today. This is especially true for large cities in the Global South that have experienced huge population booms without the monetary resources to adapt accordingly. More than 90% of the increase in the global urban population by 2050 will occur in Asia and Africa. As urban population growth outpaces economic growth in many cities in Asia and Africa, we will continue to see the "urbanization of poverty" (WRR pg. 5). Urbanization of poverty can be explained by rural to urban migration, natural population increase in urban areas, and the "impact of urbanization on the living standards of those who remain in rural areas" through remittances.
Describe what is the "lock-in" dilemma for cities using examples. Why is it important to avoid such lock-in dilemmas?
The "lock-in" dilemma refers to decisions regarding land use, infrastructure, and the built environment that "lock cities into unsustainable patterns of resource consumption and costly future urban development trajectories" (WRR 6). Cities in the Global North have achieved unprecedented levels of service delivery but at great environmental and social cost. Examples: zoning that located residential land use far from markets and employment opportunities; investments in infrastructure that favors private automobile ownership; and water based sewage systems.
The World Resources Report identifies the importance of action across three interlocking spheres -- economy, environment, and equity as necessary to develop sustainable cities in the future. How does the framework characterize the relationship between economy, environment, and equity?
An entry point of Equitable Access (equity) should be used when addressing/planning for sore services such as land use, housing, water and sanitation, energy, and transportation. Planning centered around providing these services in an equitable way will ultimately result in transformative urban change that increases economic productivity and improves environmental quality. (WRR pg. 7).
What is the definition of urbanization? How do you define a city?
Urbanization is the increased proportion of the population that is urban compared to rural (Davis,1965). A city is community of substantial size and population density that shelters a variety of non-agricultural specialists, including a literate elite (Sjoberg, 1973). Definition includes: a settled community, an implied threshold of population size, non-agricultural employment, and cities are ruled by literate elite. -Lecture 1
What parts of the world are majority urban and where are urban populations growing today? How will this change in the next 20 years?
Northern America is currently the most urbanized region. However, urban growth rates are the fastest in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. By 2050, Asia and Africa will have the highest percentages of urban populations. Lecture 1
What processes lead to early proto-urban settlements and the earliest cities?
Agricultural, urban, and industrial revolutions. Cities were marked by a nu,ber of important innovations—1) Increased population and density, 2) Concentration fo agricultural surplus, and 3) Public works and monuments. As agricultural surplus grows, people are able to specialize. This creates social stratification and long distance trade. Lecture 1
What are the characteristics of industrial capitalism?
Industrial capitalism was the beginning of the global city. "Wealth of Nations" by Adam Smith and "Das Kapital" by Karl Marx were influential in the movement. Occupations became more specialized and the division of labor more complex. Land became a commodity. Emerging nation state and the rise of an urban proletariat (working class of the city).
How did industrial capitalism change social relationships in cities?
With the rise of industrial capitalism, cities saw a huge population increase with many European cities growing to populations of a million or more. Industrialization in cities led to an increased wealth gap among urban residents. The new social order was based on property owning capitalists and property-less proletariats. Characteristics of the Industrial city include: Factories, railroads, and slums.
What is the relationship between industrial capitalism and the global city?
The emergence of industrial capitalism marked a shift to a society focused around the accumulation of monetary wealth. Nations became divided between industrialized and non-industrialized, cities became industrial centers, and European nations began expanding their territories through colonialism. The increase in technology, infrastructure, and drive for expansion fueled the creation of more connected global cities.
Discuss some factors that can contribute to transformative change in cities in the global South. Use examples from the reading to support your response.
Strong commitment on the part of politicians, public and private sector actors, and engaged citizens (a broad coalition of urban change agents). Strong, visionary, and progressive local leadership and effective local governance with high accountability. Access to sufficient financial resources to implement ambitious reforms (Medellin from hydropower resources and Surat from a well-managed revenue base and continued private sector investment in the city). Cites should be able to plan, manage, and sustain positive change over time.