Organized Crime exam #1

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7 characteristics of organized crime groups:
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Terms in this set (100)
... provides the greatest economic revenue streamSports bettingIn what kind of illegal gambling does the bettor place wager with a "number writer" for an anticipated daily number?"Numbers game"/"Policy" (illegal lottery)In the illegal lottery, writers take a fee (vigorish or vig) off the top and turn in money to ..., who also take out a small fee and turn the wagers into an ..."pick up men" "office" or "numbers bank"How does the bettor know if their "number" hit in the illegal lottery?By either horse racing results or by using the "government controlled lottery daily number"In the illegal lottery, they may use a ... to back up the numbers bank if the payoff of winning "number" is larger than the revenue from losing bettorslayoff bank"The process by which criminals conceal or disguise the proceeds of their crimes or convert those proceeds into good and services. It allows criminals to infuse their illegal money into the stream of commerce":Money launderingTraditional methods of money laundering use ...Non-Financial Institutions and Commercial Businesses3 newer methods of money laundering:-Bulk movement of cash onto offshore locations -Wire tranfers -"Underground banking systems"In the U.S. any cash transaction must be reported on a ..."Currency Transaction Report" (CTR)Making numerous deposits under the $10,000 threshold to avoid the requirement to submit a CTR:"Smurfing"These two acts requires banks and financial institutions to keep records of all transactions and report suspicious deposits:The Bank Secrecy Act (1970) and new Patriot ActThe 3 stages of the money laundering cycle:1. Placement 2. Layering/structuring 3. IntegrationIn what stage of the cycle is the money laundering most likely to be detected?The first stage, placementWhat stage of the money laundering cycle is this: -Purchasing gambling chips or betting -Smuggling out into foreign banks -Co-mingling hot money into legitimate businessesPlacementWhat stage of the money laundering cycle is this: Transferring to various accounts and businesses (legitimate commerce) to blur actual ownershipLayering/structuringWhat stage of the money laundering cycle is this: Returning clean money to the criminal from what appears to be a legitimate sourceIntegrationWhat theory argues that every immigrant group faces discrimination and economic hardships?"Ethnic Succession" (Ianni)Most traditional organized crime groups in the U.S. began as ...immigrant populations who left their countries because of poverty and/or government corruptionWho was the first major immigrant movement?The "Irish Immigration" of 1840Became a location synonymous with Irish political corruption:Tammany HallIn 1919, Congress passed the ... Act, which prohibited the manufacturing, sale and distribution of alcoholVolstead (National Prohibition Act)The passing of the Volstead act was also called the ..."Noble Experiment"Who proposed the Volstead (National Prohibition) Act?The religious Temperance MovementDuring the prohibition, the country was divided into the ... and the ...The "Wets" and the "Drys"Inwardly and covertly, there was a belief that Prohibition was a movement by the ... to "control" the aberrant behavior of the Irish, Italian and Jewish immigrantswhite Protestant indigenous populationsOriginated from drivers who were paid to transport alcohol during Prohibition:NASCARThis commission described certain traits of criminality specific to organized crime:Chicago Crime Commission (1915)This commission looked at organized crime influence in gambling industry and looked for the "Mafia" model of groups:Kefauver Committee (1950)What is the literal translation for "Mafia"?"Black Hand"Where was mafia first seen in the US?New OrleansWhat is the literal translation for "La Casa Nostra"?"This thing of ours"The existence of La Casa Nostra was exposed by ... at the ...Joe Valachi, McClellan CommitteeMost of the Italian immigrants came from impoverished areas of ...Italy and SicilyItalian males were mostly uneducated and could not speak English so were relegated to ...unskilled urban labor (digging canals, paving, etc.)Italian females worked in ..."sweatshops"At the turn of the 20th Century, ... were the lowest paid workers in the USItalian immigrantsIn 1891 mobs in New Orleans conducted the worst mass lynching in the US. What happened?11 Italian males were hanged for suspicion of murder of a corrupt police chief... % to ...% of immigrants returned to Italy within five years30 % to 50 %Sicilian gangs identified as "Mafioso" operated through a code of conduct which included a vow of secrecy. What was this called?OmertaViolations of omerta resulted in ...deathSeized power of the 20 "Mafioso families" in the US and created the Mafia "Commission":Lucky LucianoWhat act gave law enforcement the ability to penetrate and prosecute Mafia crime families in the 1970s?Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO)What incident confirmed the probable existence of a structured organized crime network, with a "national crime commission" and a a "Capo di tuti Capi" or "chairman of the board"?The "Apalachin incident"At who´s home did the "Apalachin incident" occur?Joseph Barbara, a New York crime bossWho was the first Mafia member to become a government witness?ValachiThere were speculations about the Mafia being connected to a very controversial murder. Which one?The assassination of President John F KennedyOn the St. Valentine´s Day massacre, prohibition competition created a competition in Chicago between what two parts?The Italian Mafia (South Side) headed by Al Capone and the Irish gang (North side) headed by Bugs MoranPolitical figures benefit from relationships with organized crime figures through...indirect campaign contributions, bribery involving contracts, outright gifts, and access to labor leadersCorporate figures benefit from relationships with organized crime figures through...profit from organized crime investments from legitimate businessesWhat can you gain from bribing the judicial level of government?Favorable dispositions in criminal trialsWhat can you gain from bribing the executive level of government?Law enforcement permitting gambling, prostitution, and speakeasies; local government officials issuance of permits and contracts to criminal businessesWho exposed institutionalized police corruption in the NYPD in 1970?The Knapp CommissionJudith Cambell Exner was the mistress to both:President John F Kennnedy and Chicago crime boss Sam GiancanaSam Giancana allegedly helped with ...JFK's election to President & attempt assassination of Fidel CastroWho was believed to be engaged in bootlegging conspiracies with Frank Costello, boss of the Genovese crime family during the later years of Prohibition?Joseph Kennedy Sr."Infiltration, domination, and use of a union or employee benefit plan by illegal, violent, or fraudulent means":Labor RacketeeringThis act was established in 1935 to structure relationships between labor and the private sector to avoid strikes and work stoppages:National Labor Relations ActIn 1937 New York crime families infiltrated the ...ILA (International Longshoreman's Association)What do we call a contract between employer and union officials in a labor racketeering situation?Sweetheart contractA form of extortion directed to employers, to guarantee uninterrupted labor:Strike insuranceWho was the President of the International Association of Teamsters from 1958-1971?HoffaWho has the primary responsibility for analyzing intelligence on organized crime in the UK?The National Criminal Intelligence ServiceThe National Criminal Intelligence Service in the UK describes organized crime as having what four salient attributes?1. An organized crime group contains at least three people 2. The criminal activity the group enages in is ongoing and indefinite in duration 3. The group is motivated by a desire for profit or power 4. The group commits serious criminal offensesWhat category of illicit activity does these criminal enterprises fall under: -Drugs -Pornography -Arms and weapons -Stolen goods -Contraband -Counterfeit currency and financial instruments -Endangered and rare animals and plants -Gems and gold -Intellectual property -Nuclear materialProvision of illicit goodsWhat category of illicit activity does these criminal enterprises fall under: -Gambling -Protection rackets -Humans for both labor and sexual services -Sex industry -Loan-sharking -Fencing of stolen goods -High tech crimesProvision of illicit servicesWhat category of illicit activity does these criminal enterprises fall under: -Investment in legitimate enterprises -Labor racketeering -Professional arson -Money laundering -Financial fraud -Environmental crime (toxic waste dumping, etc.)Business and financial crimeWhat category of illicit activity does these criminal enterprises fall under: -Bribery -Election fraud -Criminal justice system corruption -Influence peddling -Collusion in state-initiated political crimesPolitical crime and corruptionWhat Lithuanian organized crime group is a particularly good example of a standard hierarchy?The Cock GroupWhat does the members of the Cock Group have in common?They were all former prison inmatesAn example of organized crime involvement in legitimate business is the well-documented relationship between ..., ... and ... in New Yorkconstruction locals, contractors and the Italian American crime syndicates"The use or threatened use of violence or force to achieve a criminal end":ExtortionExtortion has most commonly been associated with conducted one of the first efforts to explore organized crime in the US?The Chicago Crime Commission of Inquiry in 1915The Chicago Crime Commission claimed that certain traits of criminal groups could be distinguished from other forms of criminality? What did these traits include?Special traditions -Systematized practices -Specialized language (criminal argot)What did the Wickersham Commission study?The impact of Prohibition on criminal activityWho offered this definition of organized crime in 1967: "A society that seeks to operate outside the control of the American people and their government. It involves thousands of criminals, working within structures as large as those of any corporation."The President´s Commission of Law Enforcement and the Administration of JusticeWhy did the Apalachin Incident cause considerable embarrassment for J. Edgar Hoover´s FBI?Because Hoover had confidently asserted that there was no such thing as organized crime in the USWhile the FBI had no criminal data on organized crime to offer Kennedy´s McClellan Committee, Kennedy received a plethora of information from the ..., which had been tracking alleged mafiosi for decadesFBN (Federal Bureau of Narcotics)Within days after the Apalachin incident, Hoover initiated the ..., which asked FBI chiefs to identify the top ten gangsters within their jurisdictionsTop Hoodlum ProgramWhat proved to be one of the most powerful investigative tools ever used against organized crime?WiretapsAuthority figures that protect the interests of the criminal group by abusing their authority are called ...protectorsThe advantage that organized crime has over legitimate businesses:the "edge"Skilled persons such as pilots, chemists, arsonists and hijackers are considered...specialized supportersPersons who purchase organized crime´s illegal goods and services, such as drug users, patrons of bookmakers, and prostitution rings, and people who knowingly purchase stolen goods are considered...user supportersPoliticians who solicit the support of organized crime figures, business leaders who do business with organized crime, social and community leaders who invite organized crime figures to social gatherings, and people who portray organized crime or its members in a favorable light are known as supportersWho came up with the Cosa Nostra Theory?CresseyAccording to Cressey´s Cosa Nostra Theory, the hierarchy of the Mafia includes: (5)-The boss -The consigliere (advisor) -The underboss -The caporegime (midlevel managers) -The soldiersConceives of organized crime as entrepreneurial activity that happens to be illegal:Smith´s Enterprise TheoryArgues that organized crime are not the formal organizations that have been depicted by the Mafia theory and that "like all social systems, they have no structure apart from their functioning; nor do they have structure independent of their current personnel":Ianni´s Kinship Group ModelFounded in 1789 to oppose the ruling conservative Federalist party, which failed to represent the interests of less affluent citizens:Tammany Hall