affirmative action

seeking out a member of a minority group for a position they were previously excluded from


skin colored prejudice within a ethnoracial group, mainly light skinned blacks and dark skinned blacks


unfair treatment of people based on social characteristics such as race , ethinicity, or sex


sense of community that derives from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people with a common ancestry

institutional racism

laws, customs, and practices that produce racial and ethnic inequalities in a society whether the people have racial intentions or not

panethnic labels

general terms applied to diverse subgroups that are assumed to have something in common

personal racism

individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors


unfavorable attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about members of a different group based on a social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or gender

quiet racism

form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness which motivate aucidance rather than blatant discrimination


category of people labeled and treated as similar because of some allegedly common biological trait such as skin color

racial transparency

tendency for the race of a society's majority to be so obvious and unremarkable that it becomes for all purposes invisible


belief that humans are divided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and can be ranked as superior or inferior


overgeneralized belief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members of some identifiable group

institutional sexism

subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law, politics, and other social institutions


female-dominated society which gives higher prestige to woman than to men


practice of treating people as objects


male-dominated society which gives higher prestige to men than to women

pay equity

principle that woman and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and require equal training should be paid equally


system of beliefs that asserts the inferiority of one sex and justifies gender based inequality


condition which rapid change has disrupted society's ability to adequately regulate and control its members and the rules that governed people's lives no longer seem to apply


action designed to prevent or reverse changes sought or accomplished by an earlier social movement

cultural diffusion

process by which beliefs, technology, and customs spread from one group or society to another

global warming

steady rise in Earth's average temperature as a result of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere


coherent system of beliefs, values, and ideas

postindustrial society

society in which knowledge and the control of information is a more important element of the economy than agriculture or manufacturing and production

reform movement

collective action that seeks to change limited aspects of a society but does not seek to alter or replace major social institutions

revolutionary movement

collective action that attempts to overthrow an entire social system and replace it with another

social movement

continuous, large-scale, and organized collective action motivated by the desire to enact, stop , or reverse change in some area of society

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