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Exam 2: 13- Sensory and Cutaneous
Terms in this set (24)
Which of the following correctly describes structures and their functional relationships in the inner ear?
1. the tympanic membrane directly displaces perilymph in the vestibular duct which sets up waves in the endolymph in the tympanic duct.
2. the oval window displaces perilymph in the vestibular duct which sets up waves in the endolymph in the cochlear duct.
3. the tympanic membrane directly displaces endolymph in the tympanic duct which sets up waves in the endolymph in the cochlear duct.
4.the round window directly displaces perilymph in the vestibular duct which sets up waves in the endolymph in the tympanic duct.
How will a punctured ear drum (tympanic membrane) affect the ability to hear?
1. Sound might be detected but only if very loud.
2. The ability to hear soft, quiet sounds will increase because sound waves hit the oval window directly.
3. No hearing will occur.
Sensory experiences can affect cortical circuits suggesting that there is plasticity during the development of the cortex. For example, by 1 year of age, Japanese infants have lost the ability to distinguish American English "r" and "l". Which of the following might explain this
1. Hair cells for "r" sounds are programmed to degenerate in Japanese.
2. Lateral inhibition has sacrificed "l" to enhance "r"
3. The receptive field for "r" has grown to encompass "l"
4. Cortical synapses degenerate if they are not used
Tinnitus is a constant buzz or ringing in the ears. One cause is thought to be a leak of endolymph into the perilymph chambers, causing the fluids to mix. Why would this lead to perception of hearing a buzz?
1. K+ in endolymph would decrease which would sustain depolarization of hair cells, leading to the perception of hearing.
2. K+ in perilymph would rise which will lower the gradient for K+ efflux from hair cells, leaving them depolarized.
3. As the fluid moves it displaces hair cells.
What kind of receptor is stimulated by hot pepper and temperatures higher than 43 C (body temperature is about 37 C)?
Where will Pacinian corpuscles be located?
Between the dermis and the epidermal layer of skin
Lower layer of the dermis of skin
Upper epidermal layer of skin
In the joint between two bones
lower level of the dermis of skin (hypodermis)
To test sensory acuity of an area of the body, one can apply two sharp objects to see if discrimination of the points is possible. Areas of the body with the highest numbers of sensory receptors, and the smallest receptive fields, will have the __ acuity.
highest or lowest acuity
What stimulus would be associated with a chemoreceptor?
1. Distortion of the cell membrane
4. A chemical released from the intracellular fluid of a cell.
a chemical released from the intracellular fluid of a cell
Tonic receptors are receptors that __ in contrast to phasic receptors.
1. are on briefly at the start and end of a stimulus
2. produce action potentials at a constant rate no matter what the stimulus strength is
3. vary action potential frequency with stimulus strength
vary action potential frequency with stimulus strength
Cold and menthol receptors will be stimulated by
1. Menthol and temperatures from zero celsius on down.
2. Capsaicin, menthol and temperatures above normal body temperature
3. Capsaicin, menthol and temperatures below normal body temperature
4. Menthol and temperatures below 20 Celcius
Menthol and temperatures below 20 celsius
Which of the following stimuli commonly activates nociceptors?
1. Temperatures around 37 C
What does a proprioceptor measure?
1. Touch, temperature and pain
3. Vision, hearing and taste
Which situation exemplifies sensory adaptation?
1. A dull aching pain coming from a diffuse, imprecise area
2. A rock in your shoe is painful until you remove it.
3. Ten minutes after entering a cold lake, the water feels warmer.
4. After a cut heals, it stops hurting
ten minutes after entering a cold lake, the water feels warmer
What chemical stimulates receptors associated with acute itch, but usually do not account for chronic itch?
2. Substance P
Which is true of lateral inhibition?
1. It enhances discrimination between closely localized sensations
2. Sensory signals inhibit the contralateral somatosensory cortex
3. It explains why visceral pain is sometimes perceived as somatic pain
4. It explains why two stimuli are often perceived as a single point when regions of high sensory receptor density are stimulated.
it enhances discrimination between closely localized sensations
These thermoreceptors are found in the upper dermis, are free nerve endings, and are the most numerous thermoreceptor:
1. Merckles complex
2. Cold receptors
3. Root hair plexus
4. Capsaicin thermoreceptor
What the senses of touch, pressure, heat, cold and pain all have in common?
1. They are all proprioreceptive receptors
2. They are cutaneous sensations
3. They all use a structure known as encapsulated nerve endings.
4. They are transduced by phasic receptors
they are cutaneous sensations
Which list includes sensory receptors associated with somatesthetic senses?
1. Saccule, utricle, photoreceptors
2. Photoreceptor, auditory hair cell, Pacinian corpuscle
3. Root hair plexus, proprioceptor, thermoreceptor
4. Frontal lobe, cerebellum
root hair plexus, proprioceptor, thermoreceptor
What stimulus would be associated with a mechanoreceptor?
2. A chemical released from the intracellular fluid of a cell.
3. Distortion of the cell membrane
distortion of the cell membrane
The area of skin that is innervated by specific sensory neuron is called the __ for that receptor.
1. Receptive field
2. Convergent region
3. SensoLateral inhibitionry receptor
A strong stimulus to a tonic receptor produces __ action potentials, while a weaker stimulus produces __ action potentials.
Larger - smaller
Fewer - more frequent
Smaller - larger
More frequent - fewer
more frequent, fewer
Phasic receptors are __ adapting receptors.
What type of pain is likely to be associated with myelinated fibers?
A dull aching pain
Sharp pain at the onset of the stimulus
Sharp pain at the onset of the stimulus
Which list includes only special senses?
Touch, temperature and pain
Vison, hearing and taste
Vision, hearing, taste
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