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63 terms

FORENSIC MIDTERM

STUDY
PLAY
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
2. The judicial case that set forth the current guidelines for determining the
admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal courts is
general acceptance of scientific principles
The case of Frye v. United States deals with the legal issue of
edmund locard
One of the earliest crime laboratories was founded by
polygraph examination
The following service does not normally lie within the expertise of the forensic scientist
all of the above
The effectiveness of an expert's testimony is almost always dependent on the
all of the above
The obligation to maintain the integrity of evidence belongs to which of the following
way the evidence is collected and presented for examination
The relative evidential value of laboratory test results is almost always dependent on the
nature of the evidence
The manner of collecting and preserving physical evidence at a crime scene is determined by the
all of the above
Physical evidence may be obtained from the
bloodstained clothing
All of the following items may be placed in an airtight container except
determining the natural cariations that exist in physical evidence
The evidence collector is not concerned with
spiral
Which of the following search patterns can be performed effectively by one person
exonerate an innocent suspect
Evidence having class characteristics can
individual
If the laboratory can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has ______________ characteristics
whether or not they have a common origin
A comparison analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examinations for the ultimate purpose of determining
this method will definitely demonstrate common origin when a match is made
The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because
CODIS
The computerized database used to store DNA information is
all of the above
Physical evidence that can be used to aid in a crime scene reconstruct-tion includes
algor mortis
The process by which the body temperature cools after death is known as
all of the above
Which of the following techniques can be used to estimate the time of death
the jury
Who ultimately determines the significance of physical evidence in a trial
2.54
One inch is equivalent to how many centimeters
100 celsius
Water boils at
color change in the presence of another chemical substance
Which of the following is not a physical property of a substance
weight per unit volume
Density is defined as
less than
A piece of glass is immersed in a liquid. It proceeds to float on the liquid's surface. This shows that the density of the glass is _____________ the density of the liquid
refractive index and density
The two most important physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons are
the exit side of the glass
The larger opening of a crater-shaped hole in glass made by the penetration of a projectile indicates
refractive index and density
If glass cannot be physically pieced together, then the control and question glass are best compared as to their
radial and concentric lines
The fracture pattern of glass usually has
parallel to the side on which the force was applied
Stress marks on the edge of a radial crack near the point of impact are
any given substance
Refractive index measures the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in
physical evidence
A crime can sometimes accurately be reconstructed solely on the presence or absence of
CODIS
A database application to DNA profiling is
IAFIS
A fingerprint can be positively identified through the database
practical limits
Modern analytical techniques have become so sensitive that the forensic examiner must be aware of the _ among materials when interpreting the significance of comparative data
distinction
The _ between individual and class evidence not is always easy to make.
exonerate
Physical evidence can be used to exclude or _ a person from suspicion of committing a crime
identification
The process of _ determines a substance's physical or chemical identity with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques
exclude
The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to _ all other substances from consideration
comparative
A(n) _ analysis subjects a suspect and a standard/ reference specimen to the same tests
weight
The _ accorded physical evidence during a trial is left entirely to the tier of fact.
probability
_ is the frequency of occurrence of an event
individual
Evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high degree of probability is said to possess _ characteristics
class
Evidence associated with a group and not a single source is said to possess _ characteristics
albert osborne
Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examinations are associated with this person
expert witness
In the courtroom, the person with specialized skills or knowledge that can determine the truth of a matter
autopsy
The medical dissection and examination of a body to determine the cause of death is called this
locard's principle
Describes the cross transfer of materials between objects
coroner
The title of person that can carry out the procedure in number 48.
forensic engineer
Expert that are concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstructionists, and the causes of fire or explosions
forensic science
application of science to law describes __
alphonse bertillion
A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was developed by __
francis galton
The scientist that devised the first definitive way to analyze/classify fingerprints was named ____
CSI
The name of the unit that is dispatched to retrieve evidence for lab analysis is ____
entomology
The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation is called __
odontology
In _ scientists can use the characteristics of teeth, their alignment, and the overall structure of the mouth to identify a body left in an unrecognizable state
toxicology
_ The unit that examines body fluid for the presence or absence of poisons or drugs
unaltered
The most important prerequisite for photographing a crime scene is to have is in a(n) ____ condition.
separate
Each item collected at the crime scene must be placed in a ____container.
airtight
An ___ container is not recommended packing material for blood stained garments
physical evidence
The term ___ encompasses all objects that can establish whether a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator.
corroborate
The value of class physical evidence lies in the ability lies to _ events with data in a manner that is, as nearly as possible, free of human error and bias.