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DE US History 122 Lessons 1-4
Terms in this set (64)
Ulyssess S. Grant
Union General during the Civil War. Created total war campaign with Sherman causing the war to end. Elected 18th president in 1870.
James A. Garfield
Didn't believe in spoils system, assassinated by charles guitea; assassination highlighted need to reform political system
Notorious in the financial world with his partner Jay Gould. He provided the "brass" and his partner had the brains. He made a plot in 1869 to corner the gold market. It would only work if the federal treasury didn't sell any gold. They tried to make sure of this by talking with President Grant and his brother in law who was paid $25,000. They bid the price of gold skyward while honest businesspeople were driven to the wall. The bubble broke when the treasury, contrary to what Grant said, released gold. Grant had done nothing stupid but acted stupidly and indiscreetly.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Samuel J. Tilden
Hayes' opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians. Exposed "Boss" Tweed
A joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes. Involved shovel comapny
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Grant's secretary of war who was forced to resign after he was found to have accepted bribes from suppliers to the Indian reservations.
Associated with the Whiskey Ring
William Belknap was caught swindling $24,000 by selling trinkets to the Indians. Impeached
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. He used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
The Gilded Age
Refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era of the late 19th century (1865-1901). Is most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy. Characterized by robber barons, panics, and political corruption. Not that great on inside. Mark Twain
Creates a Steel company. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. He used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons" Also bessemer Process
The writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910); used "realistic fiction". Quote about the "Gilded Age."
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, ran against Tilden in the election where electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Plessey v. Ferguson
The court ruling that segregated African Americans and Whites
1896- racial segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal accommodations are provided" Upholds Jim crow
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Leader of AFL and Cigar Makers Union
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
Former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies. After his election in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt demonstrated support of progressive reforms by strengthening this.
Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so he became the 21st president. Steel Navy, great white fleet
Charles J. Guiteau
assassinated President James A. Garfield to make civil service reform a reality. He shot Garfield because he believed that the Republican Party had not fulfilled its promise to give him a government job. Native illinois
Pendleton Act of 1883
Federal legislation which created a system in which federal employees were chosen on the basis of competitive examinations, therefore making merit, or ability, the reason for hiring people to fill federal positions
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
the government leaves the people alone regarding all economic activities. It is the separation of economy and state. There are two ways that a government typically is tempted to interfere with the economy.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike. Frick and Pinkertons
His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.
J. Pierpont Morgan
He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation. Tycoon
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Promontory Point, Utah
Place where Union Pacific RR tracks connected to the Central Pacific tracks
Pullman Town Strike
The conflict began in the town of Pullman, Illinois on May 11, 1894, when 3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike (a strike without union authority) in response to reductions in wages by 35%, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt. The American Railway Union (ARU), the nation's first industry-wide union was led by railroad firefighter and socialist, Eugene V. Debs. Grover Cleveland broke up the strike with military force because it interfered with the U.S. Postal System
James J. Hill
Canadian-Northern Railway-helped farmers bc he received no help from the gov-created Northern transcontinental RR from Minnesota to Washington
(1813-1898) An English engineer who created a process of producing steel, in which impurities are removed by forcing a blast of air through molten iron.
Last notable armed conflict btw. US troops and Native Americans 1890 Occurred after a Sioux holy man named Wewoka developed a religious ritual caused the Ghost Dance -believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return Native Americans to their land - alarmed white settlers and caused great concern so govt sent in US army -army believed that the Sioux leader Sitting Bull was using the Ghost Dance to start an uprising -when soldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull, a gunfight resulted in the deaths of 14 people, including Sitting Bull -soldiers then pursued the Sioux to a Creek -when a shot rang out, the soldiers started firing -before it was over more than 150 Native American men, women, and children, most of whom were unarmed, were dead
James H. Dooley
was a Virginia lawyer, business leader, politician, and philanthropist based in Richmond during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age. He was a key figure in construction of the Richmond and Alleghany Railroad, and represented Richmond in the Virginia House of Delegates. (maymont)
made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars that made long distance rail travel more comfortable. Built a company town near Chicago for his employees.
The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized against rail road abuses. Similar group to the Farmers Alliance.
The most important political force in the writing of the Texas Constitution.
Knights of Labor
Led by Terence V. Powderly; open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they worked.
American Railway Union
Created by Eugene V. Debs, it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s. The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike.
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of a Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Who was credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
"Gospel of Wealth"
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Formed the American Tabacco Company, controlled 90% of the cigarette market
Southern industrialist behind the American Tobacco Company and Southern Power Company who made great advances in the businesses of tobacco and hydroelectric power.
This battle was fought by one of the largest armies of Indian warriors (2500) defeated Custer's army and killed every man. They didn't have the organization or resources to stay together after this.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Dawes Severity Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
George Armstrong Custer
Former General during the Civil War, he set out in 1874 with his Seventh Cavalry to return the Plains Indians to the Sioux reservation. Defeated by an army that outnumbered his men 10 to 1.
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
was a Sac and Fox athlete of Native American and European ancestry. Considered one of the most versatile athletes of modern sports, he won Olympic gold medals for the 1912 pentathlon and decathlon, played American football (collegiate and professional), and also played professional baseball and basketball
The United States Indian Industrial School was the flagship Indian boarding school in the United States. Americanized the students that attended the school.
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over
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