32 terms

Children's Health: Nutrition

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1. Aids in expulsion of placenta via oxytocin
2. Aids in prevention of post-partum hemorrhage.
3. Speeds uterine involution
4. Decreased risk of breast/ovarian cancer
5. Aids in return to normal maternal weight
6. Aids in psychosocial adjustment/bonding/mothering kills (oxytocin). Promotes maternal behavior in rats so might do the same in humans.
7. Decrease risk of heart attack
8. Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes
List as many maternal benefits of breastfeeding as you can. (Up to 8)
1. Laxative effect of colostrum
2. Antibodies in colostrum and milk confer passive immunity against many viral and bacterial diseases.
3. Sucking promotes normal jaw and palate development.
4. Human milk as 2-10 times as many bioavailable vitamins as Cow's milk
5. Mineral absorption higher than any other kind of milk
6. Protein absorption from human milk is nearly 100% (vs cows milks 50%)
7. Removes need to eliminate unused protein from cow's milk since that strains baby's kidneys.
8. Fewer allergies
9. Better weight control
10. Lysozyme in human milk is antibacterial.
11. Human milk digestion promotes lactobacillus
12. Promotes emotional development
13. Fewer illnesses in first 10 years of life.
14. HIgher IQ (better language acquisition)
List as many benefits as you can for breastfeeding for the infant. (Up to 14)
1. Engorgement if infrequent feedings.
2. Mastitis
3. Sore nipples (coat with lanolin or expose to air)
4. Leaking
What are some disadvantages of breastfeeding?
1. Pain - Thrush or poor latch
2. Lip/Tongue Tie - Difficult latch, slow weight gain, poor satisfaction with feeding.
3. TMJ Subluxation - Disrupts comfort
4. Cervical Subluxation - Difficulty latching at one breast.
What are some challenges when breastfeeding?
1 (18 months)

Because may develop intolerance, Renal stress due to high solute levels. Low iron content in cow's milk can cause iron deficient anemia.
Children should not drink whole cow's milk before the age of....

Why?
1. Increased need for antioxidants due to unsat FA content.
2. Poorer visual acuity than breast fed infants
3. Lack enzymes, hormones, growth, and immune factors found in breast milk.
What are the disadvantages of diary-based formulas?
1. Near equal incidence of intolerance as dairy-based formulas
2. Aluminum is 1000x greater than in dairy-based formulas
3. Manganese is 200x greater than in dairy based formulas (associated wtih brain damage)
4. Soy formula associated with altered reproductive function
5. Soy is giotrogenic
6. Constipation with iron fortification
7. Decreased bioavailability of calcium and phosphorus.
What are the disadvantages with soy-based formula?
6-8 months with first teeth.

First you do pureed. Meat is given with molars.
When do you start to introduce foods? What foods?
First cereals, then veggies, then fruits. Don't give sweet foods first or they won't develop a taste for savory foods.
What is the progression of introducing foods?
1 tablespoon per month of age. So if they are 8 months, we would give them 8 tablespoons.

First Month: One food, one time per day
Second Month: Two feeds, two times per day
Third Month: Three foods, three times per day.
How much food do we give in the first, second, and third months?
3 years old. Because it promotes positive taste response in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
We want to give a variety of food exposures by the age of _______
True
T/F: Obesity numbers are higher for children on WIC programs
40% with one. 80% with two.
What is your genetic risk of obesity with one obese parent? With two?
False. High and low
T/F: Only high birth weights are associated with high obesity.
Number: Gestation to 2 years
Size: Puberty
When do adipocytes increase in number? When do they increase in size?
60 minutes
How many minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise is recommended daily for children?
90% in US.
How many children are deficient in vitamin D?
Asthma, cancer, fractures rickets, type II diabetes
What conditions are associated with vitamin D deficiency?
Animal products, eggs, and cheese.

200 mg/day
What are the food sources of vitamin D? How much should we supplement?
95% of US deficient.
How many children are deficient in zinc?
Failure to thrive, diarrhea, hair loss, delayed wound healing, skin lesions.
What conditions are associated with low zinc levels?
Soaked legumes and leavened breads.

Supplement 5 mg/day
What foods provide zinc? how much should we supplement per day?
Night blindness, recurrent respiratory or GI illnesses, slow growth, slow bone development, dry itchy skin, low appetite.
What conditions are associated with vitamin A deficiency?
Cod liver oil, carrots, sweet potatoes, green leafies.

Supplements include carotinoids and retinal. Retinal take 8000 IU/day max.
What are the food sources of vitamin A? Supplements? How much should we take max?
Fatigue, dizziness, cold hands/feet, shortness of breath, headache, palor, chest pain, arrhythmia, brittle nails, cracks at side of mouth, sore swollen tongue, pika, and restless leg syndrome.
What conditions can result from iron deficiency?
Green leafies, eggs, peanuts, meats, legumes, dried fruits, prune juice, and molasses.
What foods are high in iron?
Most common supplement poisoning
Why do we need to be careful supplementing with iron?
Serum ferretin levels.
What do we base iron supplement needs on?
Creates eating disorders
What are the concerns with using foods to reward/punish children?
12-30oz may account for 25-60% of a child's calories. May play a role in failure to thrive.
What the the concerns with giving juice to children?
1. Salivary gland enlargment
2. Fluid/electrolyte imbalance
3. esophogitis
4. Tooth enamel decay
5. Callus on knuckles
6. Cardiomyopathy
What are the signs/symptoms of bulimia?
It is normal and reassuring up to the age of 1.
What is the cause of green stool in an infant?