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206 terms

AP Human Geography Final (1st Semester)

This set is the vocabulary from the sheet entitled, "1st Semester's Sexy Geography Study Suggestions" (Catch Up Units 1 and 2 and Units 1, 2, and 3)
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environmental determinism
a country's environment determines its success
possibilism
any country can overcome its environmental disadvantages
ethnocentrism
the belief that your people/ethnic group are better
superpower
a country that is culturally, economically, and militarily dominant
scale
the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it
mercator projection
A method of making maps in which the Earth's surface is shown as a rectangle; exaggerates the size of areas
robinson projection
map projection of a world map with no direction
azimuthal projection
a map projection of polar areas
equal area projection
an interrupted, equal-area, composite map projection used for world maps
aggregation
the level at which information is revealed on a map
cartogram
maps that swell and shrink depending on big or small numbers for that country/region
chloropleth map
a map that shows data with colors
isoline map
A map containing continuous lines joining all points of identical value
imperialism
when a group comes in and crushes another group, steals their women and gold and children and forces them into an unfair trade relationship
mercantilism
creating a favorable balance of trade WITH FORCE
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
Berlin Conference
the peaceful splitting of Africa to colonies of Portugal, Belgium, Britain and Germany
mono-economy
an economy with only 1 product being sold
capital
money for investment into business
primate city
cities more than twice the size of the next largest city
infrastructure
Services and facilities including roads, water, sewer, emergency services, parks,
forward capital
a new capital that was created for a historical or economical reason
brain drain
the large-scale emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity, political instability, or health risks
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
a zone from which military forces or operations or installations are prohibited
Cold War
NATO vs Warsaw Pact or "First World" vs "Second World"
Korean War
North Korea vs South Korea (UN involved)
Vietnam War
North Vietnam vs South Vietnam (UN not involved)
mutually assured destruction
the knowledge that if one side shoots a deadly weapon, the other side will immediately do the same, and both sides will die
nuclear club
the nations possessing nuclear weapons (China, France, Russia, UK, USA)
nuclear non-proliferation treaty
agreement of 189 states to not spread nuclear weapons across the globe, disarm nuclear weapons that currently exist, and help member states with out nuclear weapons develop nuclear energy
treaty
a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
devolution
the process of allowing a certain part of a country to have freedoms
balkanization
the act of dividing a region or state into smaller regions or states and the two parts often very hostile or uncooperative towards each other
velvet divorce
the splitting of Czechoslavokia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
ethnic cleansing
massive killing of an ethnic group in the hope of having them leave an area
genocide
massive killing of an ethnic group in the hope of having them completely obliterated
spatial perspective
to observe the physical and human characteristics of our planet as they vary over space, looking specifically for patterns and processes
remote sensing
gaining information about an object without coming in direct contact with it
survey
a method of collecting information from people about their characteristics, behaviors, attitudes, or perceptions. ...
census
the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population
field study
a trip (cough vacation cough) to a place to make qualitative observations
toponomy
the study of the origins of place names
absolute location
a location in latitude and longitude
relative location
a location of a place determined by what's closest around you
site
describing a place based on its resources and land
situation
describing a place based on its location to other places
cultural landscape
combination of environmental and human influences on the environment
formal region
an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
an area that is a person's daily commute
vernacular region
an area that is a person's mental map
globalization
when ideas, values, beliefs, and cultural traits are becoming increasingly shared throughout the world as interconnectedness increases
local diversity
when there are differences that are maintainted around the world between places/cultural groups no matter how much globalization spreads
cultural hearth
the origin of a particular cultural trait
acculturation
when a dominant group moves into a weaker culture and forces the culture onto the weaker group abruptly
assimilation
when a weaker group moves into a dominant culture by choice and adopts the traits of the dominant group gradually
sequence occupancy
several different cultural groups have occupied that territory so you will see different layers in modern culture
expansion diffusion
the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area
hierarchal diffusion
spread of an idea through an established structure usually from people or areas of power down to other people or areas
contagious diffusion
spread of an idea/trait/concept through a group of peole or an area equally without regard to social class, economic position, or position of power
stimulus diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle even though the new groups "remix" your idea
relocation diffusion
people move and they take their culture with them
migrant diffusion
an idea migrates outwards, but overtime fades out at the origin
time-distance decay model
model that shows the farther away two places are, the less likely they are to have diffusion
correlation
a measurement of how related two variables under study are related
crude birth rate
the childbirths per 1,000 people per year
crude death rate
the deaths per 1,000 people per year
natural rate of increase
the CBR minus the CDR
population growth rate
the CBR minus the CDR plus the immigrants minus the emmigrants
total fertility rate
the average number of childbirths a woman has from the age of 15 to 49
doubling rate
the length of time required for a population to double in size
dependency ratio
a measure of the dependence that non-working people have on working people
life expectancy
the number of years expcected to live for bablies born this year
infant mortality rate
the number of babies who die becore their first birthday out of 1000 live births
demographic transition model
a model that explains the changing population (High stationary, Early expanding, Late expanding, Late stationary)
population pyramid
a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population which normally forms the shape of a pyramid
population change
how a population changes religiously, ethnicly, etc
overpopulation
too many people with too little resources
sustainability
the capacity to endure
Thomas Malthus
said food grows linearly, population grows exponentially, and Britain was a closed system
Ester Boserup
said population density creates more agricultural output and humans will figure out ways of producing more food on the same amount of land rather than starve to death
carrying capacity
the maximum population size of a given species that an area can sustain without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future
push factor
a social, political, economic, or environmental force that drives people from a location
pull factor
a social, political, economic, or environmental attraction to a new area that draws people from a previous location
gravity model
population1 X population 2/density squared
culture
the way a group of people live
popular culture
a large group of people; heterogeneous group, changes quickly, dispersed at a global scale; tends to share customs with a large number of people
folk culture
small, isolated groups; homogenous groups; slow to change; clustered at a local scale; traditional societies with little interaction with other groups
taboo
strong social prohibition relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden based on religious beliefs
secular
non-religious
wattle
a mat of woven sticks and weed used in wall construction
literary tradition
help cultural continuity by having a written word
Indo-European Family
made of of Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian branches mainly
Sino-Tibetan Family
Mandarin the most spoken language in this family
Afro-Asiatic Family
language family from North Africa and the Middle East; Arabic is the most spoken language from this family
standard language
the dialect that is seen as proper in a language
vulgar language
variants of the standard language that have regional accents that can reveal a person's home
language
systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols
British Received Pronounciation (BRP)
the accent of Standard English in England
isogloss
transition zone surrounding a particular linguistic feature
language divergence
when two dialects become mutually unintelligible, two separate languages emerge (involves time and isolation)
Basque
belongs to the language family of Basque
Khoisan
belongs to the language family of Khoisan
Conquest (Kurgan Hearth) Theory
positive checks; language spread west as people conqured territory using superior technology and animals
Agriculture (Anatolian Hearth) Theory
people sharing agriculture techniques diffused the language through Europe
lingua franca
common language used when conducting business with two people who's primary language is not the same
pidgin
simple way of getting understood by someone who doesn't speak your language
creolization
process of a pidgin becoming real
Afrikaans
an official creole of the Republic of South Africa; closely related to Dutch and Flemish
Francophone
the French speaking part of the world
core
the wealthiest countries in the world belong to this category
semi-periphery
the countries that are not poor but not wealthy belong to this category
periphery
the poorest countries in the world belong to this category
primary jobs (extractive jobs)
most basic jobs (hunting/gathering, nomadic herding, mining, fishing, forestrym, agriculture)
secondary jobs
construction, shipbuilding, automobile production, textile production, breweries and bottlers, energy producers
service jobs (tertiary jobs)
waiting tables, plumbers, teachers
quinary jobs
most complex jobs; have something before or after name
quaternary jobs
finance, insurance, real estate
remittances
a transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her home country
wet foot dry foot policy
If Cubans fleeing to the United States are found in the water, they are sent back to Cuba; if they are found on land, they are allowed to stay here
arithmetic density
the density of all the land in a place
physiologic density
the density of only the arable land in a place
syncretic religion
religions who have borrowed ideas from other religions
ethnic religion
don't seek converts outside the group, tend to be spatially concentrated, holidays tend to be seasonal, can be a member of the cultural group and not believe in the theology of the faith, very old/prehistoric, no clergy, relocation diffusion
universalizing religion
seek converts, scattered all over the world, holidays tend to be historic events, have to believe in theology to be a member, younger than ethnic religions, clergy, hierarchical diffuision
Iman
Muslim teacher
clergy
the formal religious leadership within a given religion
proselytizing
seeking converts
denomination
a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith
sect
a subdivision of a denomination
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
cosmogony
the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe
pilgrimidge
to follow a prescribed historical/environmental route
fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
deist
a person who believes that God does not have interaction with humans (no miracles)
interfaith dispute
a dispute happening between two different religions
intrafaith dispute
a dispute happening within a religion
Pakistan/India
Hindu origin
Nepal
Buddhism origin
Israel
Christian/Judaism origin
Arabian Peninsula (Mecca)
Islam origin
India
Jainism/Sikhism origin
Roman Catholic
religion located in Southern Europe, Phillippines
Prostestant
religion located in Northern Europe, United States
Sunni Muslim
religion located in Northern Africa
Sikhism
religion located in Punjab, India
Hinduism, Islam, Jainism
religions located in India
Morman
religion located in Utah
Orthodox
religion located in Greece, Turkey
Quebec, Ireland, Belgium
places with intrafaith dipute between Protestants and Catholics (3)
Egypt
place with interfaith dispute between Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims
Iraq
place with intrafaith dispute between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims
Southern Sudan
place with interfaith dispute between Christians and Muslims
Cyprus
place with interfaith dispute between Orthodox Christians and Sunni Muslims
India
place with interfaith disputes between many religions
Hinduism
Christianity
Coptic Christianity
Buddhism
Shintoism
Islam
Judaism
Jainism
Sikhism
high latitudes
high numbers
low latitudes
low numbers
cultural hierarchy
cultural realm, cultural complex, cultural system, cultural region, cultural trait
unipolar
one countries rules the world (feared)
multipolar
multiple countries have power in the world
agnostic
someone who believes we can't know if there is a God
Sri Lanka
place with interfaith dispute between Buddhists and Hindus
Phillippines
place with interfaith dispute between Catholic Christians and Muslims
Japan
Shintoism origin
Mainland China
Where Mihayana Buddhists are now
South East Asia
Where Theravana Buddhists are now
Afro-Asiatic, Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan
3 major language families
Halal
Muslim dietary rules
Kosher
Jewish dietary rules
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
3 universalizing religions
Shintoism, Jainism, Judaism, Hinduism
4 ethnic religions
English, Mandarin, Spanish, French, Arabic, Russian
6 official languages of the U.N.
Sharia
Islamnic law legal system
chain migration
migrates somewhere, and then call/write home to get family members/friends to come over, who in turn call/write home to bring more family members/friends over
Great Schism
The splitting of Christianity into Orthodox and Catholic
Stage 1
Stage of DTM where birth and death rates are constant and overall very high
Stage 2
Stage of DTM where the death rate decreases dramatically, and the birth rate stays high and constant
Stage 3
Stage of DTM where the birth rate decreases dramatically, and the death rate stays low and constant
Stage 4
Stage of DTM where birth and death rates are constant and overall very low (towards end, death rate rises higher than birth rate)
2.1
replacement rate in MDCs
altitude
distance above the earth
elevation
land's height above sea level
dissolution
splitting of a nation
proxy war
a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly
arms race
build up nuclear weapons on both sides
nation state
country where only one type of people live
first strike capability
have ability of launching so quickly that opponent is completely destroyed and can't retaliate
cultural barrier
practices, ideas, or innovations not acceptable/adoptable in a particular culture
homeostatic plateau
earth's population plateaus out
dependency ratio
a measure of the dependence that non-working people have on working people
positive checks
increase death rates (famine, war, disease, natural disastor)
preventative checks
decrease birth rates (marrying later, abstinence, birth control, homeosexuality)
demographic momentum
it takes a lifetime for a population policy to work
linguistics
study of languages
domino theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control
counter migration
moving back home
forced migration
deportation
world's systems analysis
groups countries into core, semi-peripherty and perophery