1)Content Information-actual meaning of the words you say, do, direct, through verbal or written word
Relationship Information- signals indicating how you view the relationship, nonverbal cues like vocal tone, pitch, volume, expressions, eye contact, strongly influences how people interpret content info
2)Comm can be intentional or unintentional like nervous laugh, yawning, eye roll
3)Comm is irreversible, what you say, how you say it sets in motion a series of outcomes to follow
4)Comn is dynamic, constantly in flux, constantly changing, no two interactions are identical, no two moments within same interaction are identical
Male Dominance- Men have historically held more social power than women, as a result, men may either consciously or subconsciously dominate women in conversation.
Difference Cultures- builds off the tendencies of little boys and girls to play in sex-segregated groups, argues that within these groups, boy and girls develop different communication rules and norms, little boys learn to value power, girls learn to value sharing.
Different Skills- men and women do not differ in values, women and men have skills, women have better emotional, listening and conflict management skills.
Roles Theory- men and women inhabit different social roles and division of labor as a result of gender roles from expectations
Biological Factors- considers how neurocognitive differences in brain structure o function may translate into behavioral differences between the sexes, testosterone and estrogen.
Minimal Difference-men and women are much more similar than different, statistically significant differences b/w groups but quite small, many variabilities
Symbolic-we use symbols to represent items, words are the primary symbols to present people, objects, events and ideas, our internal program for encoding and decoding the symbol is set up by the language we use.
Governed by rules- the meaning of word, arrangement of words into phrases and sentences, and order of exchange between people...Constitutive rules-meaning of words, Regulative rules-how we use language
Flexible-idioms-worlds and phrases that have personal and unique meaning, cultural meaning
Cultural- used to bolster a sense of identity and connectedness, high-context-rely on indirect and ambiguous language to coney meaning (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), Low-context-clear and direct (American, German)
Evolving-new words are added and/or constitutive rules shift "Google something"
expressed through multiple channels, is more ambiguous, guided by rules, greater meaning, influenced by culture, gender, and family and friends.
Verbal and nonverbal combined, used jointly to accentuate/complement, contradict, regulate (eye contact, nodding), reiterate, substitute.
the different means used for transmitting info nonverbally-8 distinct codes-
1. Kinesics-visible body movements, facial expression, eye contact, gestures or emblems, represents a specific verbal meaning like illustrators to accent or illustrate verbal messages like a pat on the back or posture
2. vocalics-vocal characteristics, tone, pitch, loudness, speech rate, laughing is a vocal characterization
3. Haptics- use of touch to communicate, by duration, placement and strength of the touch, hugs!
4. Proxemics- communicating through physical space. Intimate (1-18'), Personal (18''-4'), Social (4'-12'), Public (12-4)
nonverbal cues perform a range of communicative tasks, or functions, allows us to communicate in certain ways and to accomplish certain goals in our everyday interactions,
Expressing emotion-affect displays, intentional or unintentional behaviors that displays emotions, when excited you might smile
Managing Identity- (present self-image), rely on nonverbal cues to assess someone's personal characteristics,
Manage Interactions-use of regulators, examine head nods, stern glance to a child, signals to indicate a speak is done talking, changes to vocal intonation (rising or falling in pitch at end of sentences), drawl on last syllable,
Define Relationships- mostly through Haptics
Meta-communicate- communication about communication, we use nonverbals to guide how the verbal communication should be perceived.
Master- American, Asian-American,
Personal-your identity, who you have always been, relatable, honest, a social butterfly
Relational-if you have strong relationships and emotional bonds with people, situational
Interactional- specifically how we interact with others, who we relate to, we tend to interact with people similar to us, social groups you interact with, situational, master with social groups because we associate with people more like us. If you are Asian, you have more Asian friends