36 terms

Chapter 17 American Horizons key terms

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Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work, but also luck
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
1886
*Combination of national craft unions representing labor interests in wages, hours, and safety
*Individuals were members of their local unions, which in turn, were members of the AFL
*Rather than revolutionary changes, they sought a better working life; their philosophy was "pure and simple unionism"
*First president was Samuel Gompers
American Railway Union (ARU)
the first major industrial union; allowed for skilled and unskilled labor; Arose after the panic of 1893; founded by Eugene Debs
Edward Bellamy
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), "Brandeis Brief"
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling. Dismantled trusts in early 20th century
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry. Gospel of Wealth
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Farmers' Alliance
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Henry Clay Frick
Manager of the Carnegie Steel plant outside of Pittsburgh, PA who barricaded the plant and hired armed Pinkerton guards to attack striking workers during homestead strike
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
The "Gospel of Wealth" 1889
book written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy, meaning to use their wealth for the benefit of society by sponsoring the arts, science, libraries, etc. Nicer alternative to harsh philosophy of Social Darwinism, but it was still very elitist and gave power over society to rich.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the strike (example of how government always sided with employers over workers in the Gilded Age). The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men. Contributed to fear of communism
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Homestead Lockout (1892)
The 1892 lockout of workers at the homestead, Pennsylvania, steel mill after Andrew Carnegie refused to renew the union contract. Union supporters attacked the guards hired to close them out and protect strikebreakers who had been employed by the mill, but the National Guard soon suppressed this resistance and the Homestead, like other steel plants, became a nonunion mill.
Horizontal Integration
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Laissez-faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
Modern Corporation
a mechanism created to allow different parties to contribute capital, expertise, and labor for the maximum benefit of each party
Muckraking Journalism
Journalism to expose the corruption present in the business and politics
Terrence Powderly
Leader of the Knights of Labor
George Pullman & the Pullman Strike
George Pullman owned the company town for the Pullman Car Company. The Pullman strike was one of the biggest the employees protested wage cuts, high rent, and layoffs. The strike quickly paralyzed the western hemisphere as it gained more support from the ARU ( American Railway Union) who refused to handle trains that carried Pullman sleeping cars. The consequences of the strike was that it stifled the growth of labor unions for a while.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
Theodore Roosevelt
1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle. Perpetuated by Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
United Mine Workers
A 1902 coal worker's strike called for an eight-hour work day and higher wages. Theodore Roosevelt stepped in and threatened the use of troops to settle the strike. It was the first time the government stepped in a labor dispute, but the result was improved conditions for the mine workers.
United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controlled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Cornelius Vanderbilt
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Vertical Integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Aaron Montgomery Ward
Traveling salesman whose company beginning in the early 1870s eliminated the "middlemen," whose services increased the retail price of goods, by reaching consumers directly through mail-order catalogs.
H.G. Wells
British author (1866-1946), wrote mainly science fiction including "The War of the Worlds","The Time Machine", and "The Invisible Man", horrified by child labor in U.S.

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