26 terms

Chapter 18 American Horizons

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Terms in this set (...)

Addams, Jane
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. HULL HOUSE
American Protective Association (APA)
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
Barnett, Samuel
Social reformer who established toynbee hall in london
Bryan, William Jennings (1860-1925)
A Democratic congressman from Nebraska who was an outspoken "free silver" advocate. His "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic convention in 1896 won him the party's nomination. The Populists also backed him in a "fusion" ticket with the Democrats. Bryan's eloquent advocacy for free silver and farmers' interests earned him millions of devoted followers, but never quite enough to win the presidency, for which he ran three times (1896, 1900, 1908). Later in life, as Secretary of State he led the resistance to American entry into World War I and in 1925, an ardent Fundamentalist, he gained fame from some quarters—and great disdain from others—for joining the prosecution of high-school biology teacher John T. Scopes for teaching evolution.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Cleveland, Grover
1885-1889, 1893-1897, New Jersey, Democrat, Vetoed over 200 private pension bills passed by Congress, First president to be married in the White House, Dawes Act of 1887, Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, Lost election of 1888 because of electoral vote, however Cleveland had 100,000 more popular votes than Harrison, Depression of 1893, Pullman Strike, Gold reserve crisis, Began imperialist efforts in Hawaii.
Coinage Act of 1873
required all currency in the US to be backed by GOLD; helped cause the Panic of 1873
Farmers' Alliance
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Garfield, James
Assassinated by Charles Guiteau, led congress to pass Pendleton Civil Service Act
Immigration Restriction League
A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.
Lajoie, Napoleon
French-Canadian, toiled in textile mills, signed with Phillies
Lease, Mary Elizabeth
a prominent Populist speaker noted for her rallying cry to farmers to "raise less corn and more hell."
McKinley, William
Republican president after 1896, cautious and conservative, his administration saw a tariff increase, the establishment of the gold standard, and a general period of prosperity, as well as America's involvement in the Spanish American War (1898) which made the US part of the international community of empires. He was assassinated in 1901.
Nativism
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
People's (Populist) Party
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Political Machines/Bosses
a party organization, headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state
Riis, Jacob
A late 19th and early 20th century journalist and social documentary photographer who is best known for exposing the struggles and poor quality of life in New York City's slums at the turn of the 20th Century in his 1890 book How the Other Half Lives.
Rockefeller
Captain of industry that created a monopoly in oil refineries
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Starr, Ellen
Established Hull House with Jane Addams, based on Toynbee Hall
Tariffs
Taxes on imported goods
Wagner, Honus
Pittsburgh pirates, son of German immigrants
Weaver, James B.
American politician who leaned toward agrarian radicalism, he ran twice unsuccessfully for US presidency as the Greenback-Labor candidate(1880) and as the Populist condidate (1892)
Willard, Frances
Headed the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. She educated the public about the dangers of alcohol abuse.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.