43 terms

American Horizons Chapter 20

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Rerum novarum
(of new things) in which the Pope condemned the exploitation of industrial workers and supported state intervention to promote social justice.
Lincoln Steffens
An investigative reporter that documented deep corruption at the core of city governments.
Florence Kelley
Veteran of Hull House that formed the Committee of Congestion of Population in New York.
National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
Middle-class organization that addressed the needs of black neighborhoods to establish hospitals, orphanages, kindergartens, and day care facilities.
Lynching
Death by hanging, usually without trial - opposed by NACW
Lewis Hine
A hired photographer that documented child labor to raise public awareness of their danger in the work place.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
1916 - Banned interstate commerce in goods produced by child labor, which was struck down 2 years later by Supreme Court due to unconstitutional expansion of government.
Carry A. Nation
Smashed barrooms with a hatchet, which she called "murder mills."
Eighteenth Amendment
1919 - Barred the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the United States (1920-1933)
Mann Act
1910 - Outlawing the transport of women across state lines for immoral purposes.
Jim Crow laws
Segregation laws that legally separated people according to race.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 - Court ruled in favor of segregation, 7 to l, that the law was reasonable to maintain public peace.
Woodrow Wilson
Continued the disheartening display of presidential prejudice in 1913. Dismissed 15 of 17 black supervisors holding federal positions.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Investigated and publicized lynching, segregation, and organized protests.
Ida B. Wells
Black clubwoman and founding member of the NAACP, spearheaded the attack on lynching.
Robert "Fighting Bob" La Follette
Led Wisconsin to epitomize progressive as "laboratory of democracy"
Initiative, referendum, and recall
Established by states such as Wisconsin to make it possible for citizens to place legislation directly before voters in general elections and allowed voters to repeal state legislation that they did not approve of.
Seventeenth Amendment
1913 - Mandated the direct election of senators by popular vote rather than by state legislators.
Grandfather Clause
Allowed any voter who had voted before 1867, or had a father or grandfather who had voted, to be exempt from the literacy test or other restrictions.
Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - Supreme Court ruled that Mississippi's voting requirements did not "on their face discriminate between the races."
George H. White
Congressman of North Carolina, was the last of 40 African Americans to serve in the House of Representatives since Reconstruction.
Ludlow Massacre
Local deputies and state militia attacked a camp of striking miners who had been evicted from company-owned housing at the command of mine owners. Killed 14, including 14 children.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
1905 - Aimed to create "one big union" of all industrial workers
William D. "Big Bill" Haywood
Was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World.
Holden v. Hardy
1898 - A supreme court decision that upheld a Utah law that limited miners to eight-hour day, citing the public interest, as miners' work was so dangerous.
Lochner v. New York
1905 - Struck down a New York law limited the hours of male bakers because the state had no right to regulate their hours and interfere with their right to contract as no health issues, they claimed, were at stake.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld an Oregon law limiting the work day of female laundry workers to 10 hours.
Louis Brandeis
Marshaled a vast array of social scientific data, known as the Brandeis brief.
Triangle fire
Worst industrial accident in the nation's history (146 of 500 employees died at Triangle Shirtwaist company)
Ida Tarbell
Published a massive expose of the company against Standard Oil, beginning in 1902. Depicted it as cutthroat and win at all costs (money hungry).
New Freedom
Wilson rejected a distinction between good and bad trusts and attacked all bigness whether in government or business.
New Nationalism
Roosevelt advocated expansive government used for public interest.
Sixteenth Amendment
1913 - Authorized a federal income tax on both personal and corporate income.
Upton Sinclair
28-year-old writer that shocked the nation with his novel, The Jungle, a plea for socialism.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Required federal inspectors from the US department of Agriculture to inspect livestock in slaughterhouses and to guarantee sanitary standards.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Outlawed adulterated or mislabeled food and drugs and gave the federal government the right to seize illegal products and fine and jail those who manufactured and sold them.
John Muir
Convinced many Americans, through prolific writing, of the value of nature and the tragedy of its loss.
National Parks Act of 1916
Provided a federal preservationist counterweight to the conservationist US forest service.
Espionage Act and Sedition Act
fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military; forbade any form of criticism of the government and military
Treaty of Versailles
Ended World War I and reflected the general sentiments of a nation weary of crusades both domestically and internationally
Alice Paul
Headed the re invigoration of the women's suffrage movement in the 1910s.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
A group headed by Carrie Chapman Catt
Nineteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.