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200 terms

Anatomy/Physiology Final

A/P 2 Final Exam
STUDY
PLAY
Hyperparathyroidism causes which of the following?
Bone resorption and renal calculi
Which of the following hormones has a specific target organ and does not affect the other tissues?
Melatonin
The pigment found in RBC's is
Hemoglobin
Too little iodine intake will lead to
Endemic goiter
Which of these is not found in blood?
Glycogen
Blood has all of the functions except
Hormone production
Which of the following concepts explains the fact that target cells do not have a great number of receptors and normal circulating blood concentrations of hormones are very low?
Enzyme amplification
The stress response includes all of the following except the
delay stage
A blood clot that breaks away and moves through the circulation is called an
embolus
Driving in congested traffic may cause release of which of these pituitary hormones?
ACTH
Which pituitary hormone stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone?
LH
Blood serum is essentially the same as plasma, except that plasma contains_____ and serums does not.
Fibrinogen
A lack of antidiuretic homrone will lead to
Diabetes insipidus
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem:
FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:
aldosterone
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through:
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
These increase with parasitic infections, allergies, collagen diseases, and diseases of the spleen and CNS:
eosinophils
James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16g/100ml blood, this is:
Within the normal range
What is the average normal pH of blood?
7.4
An individual who is blood type A negative:
Can donate to types A, and AB, but not to type O
Hormonal action is characterized by all of the following except:
Degrading and removal of other hormones
Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of
Norepinepherine
Which hormone is NOT secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
ANP
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of blood?
the pH of blood varies between 7.15-7.25
The terms biconcave and non-nucleated apply to which cell type?
Red blood cells
When red blood cells transport respiratory gases:
oxygen binds to the heme portion while carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion
Polycythemia can occur when a person is
at high altitudes for a long time
The adrenal gland produces all of the following homrones except:
renin
The metabolic rate of all body tissues is controlled by
TH
Iodine is required for the synthesis of
thyroid hormone
Clot formation includes the conversion of fibrinogen into__ by the enzyme___.
Fibrin, thrombin
In hemolytic disease of the new born
The babys blood cells hemolyze because anti-Rh antibodies from the mother cross the placenta
Blood is a ___ tissue:
Connective
All of the following are involved in clot formation except:
Plasmin
Biliverdin, bilirubin, and stercobilin are waste products of
Heme
Cells responding to peptide hormones go through a sequence of reactions involving receptors and kinase activation. It is necessary for 1st and 2nd messengers to communicate, this is possible because:
G protein acts as the link between 1st and 2nd messengers
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a homrone is dependent on:
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
During the life of RBC's:
RBC's are unable to synthesize proteins, grow, or undergo mitotic division
Blood Group AB:
Can receive blood from Group A, B, O or Group AB
Which organ doesn't produce and secrete any hormones?
Large intestine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates gluccorticoid secretion by the adrenal cortex
The __ cells of the islets of langerhans secrete glucagon
Alpha
A second messenger for hormone response is:
cAMP
The antagonist of PTH is ____ which is produced by the ____:
calcitonin; thyroid
Follicular cells in the thyroid produce:
T3
In the adrenal gland, androgens, can be found in the:
Zona Reticularis
The normal adult male hematocrit is about
47%
The blood cell that makes up 3-8% of the WBC and has a large horseshoe shaped nucleus is the:
monocyte
This includes RBC's, reticulocytes, WBC's and platelets
CBC
Which sequence is correct for the following events?
3, 4, 1, 2
The coronal arteries arise from
proximal end of the aorta
Being larger than the right ventricle, the left ventricle pumps more blood in each beat
False
B lymphoctyes, when they become plasma cells
secrete antibodies
Antibodies associated with blood group antigens cause
agglutination
_____ are destroyed by the AIDs Virus
Helper T Cells
The antigen-binding sites of an antibody molecule are found:
at the tips of the variable regions
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you
major histocompatability complex proteins
With an allergy, symptoms are caused when allergens bind to IgE on membranes of ___ and stimulate them to release ___.
Mast cells and basophils, histamine
The ____ collects blood from all other veins draining the myocardium and returns this bood to the right atrium.
Coronary sinus
On the electrocardiogram, repolarization of the atria is represented by the:
it does not appear on the EKG since it is obscured by the QRS complex
The QRS complex represents
ventricular depolarization
In a resting person, a red blood cell leaving the left ventricle will arrive back there in:
60 seconds
Of the pathways listed, which correctly describes a route that blood can take:
left atrium>bicuspid valve>left ventricle>aortice semilunar valve
The most correct sequence in the cardiac conduction system is:
SA node>AV node>AV bundle> bundle branches> Purkinje Fibers
The QRS interval on the electrocardiogram
Comes after the P Wave
Which of the following types of low venous return (LVR) shock occurs when released histamien causes extensive generalized vasodialation?
Anaphylactic shock
Which is NOT one of the three major branches arising from the aortic arch?
Righ Common Carotid Artery
These have the the most control of perfusion of a capillary bed
Precapillary sphincters
All of these factors may increase peripheral resistance except:
blood type
Venous pooling in a solider at attention for a long time occurs mainly when the mechanism fails:
skeletal muscle pump
Blood flows to the liver form the superior mesenteric ven throug the
hepatic portal
Antibodies can assist in
all of the above
Which statement is incorrect?
Lymphatic capillaries fill when tissue fluid pressure is low
Which inhibitors of microbrial growth is a component of perspiration?
lactic acid
An injection of antibody is an example of which of the following classes of immunity?
artificial passive immunity
When a white blood cell oozes thru the gap between endotheilial cells, we say it has done:
diapedesis
If you were inoculated with hepatitis A vaccine, a population of this type of cell would begin to make the appropriate antibody
B lymphocytes
The aortic semilunar valve shuts when pressure in the aortic is ___ and results in the ___ heart sound
Greater than in the left ventricle, dupp (S2)
The heart rate tends to be higher in
woman than in men
Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is ___ causing the aortic valve to ___.
less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open
Blood normally leaves the right ventricle thru
the pulmonary semi-lunar valve
In the cardiovascular system, the ____ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the ___ side of the heart
pulmonary; right
If the electrocardiogram exhibits a nodal rhythm:
the heart is beating at a slow rate set by the AV node
An individual with severe chest pain, radiating to the neck and left arm shows symptoms of
myocardial infarction
If the chordae tendineae of an animals heart were cut, the most likely effect would be
valvular prolapse
The most common capillary beds in teh body are:
Continuous capillary with tight junctions & intercellular clefts
Excessive fluid loss by sweating a hemmorhage is most likely to cause ___ shock.
hypovolemic
In humans, there is no such thing as
left brachiocephalic artery
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than ___ mmHg systolic or ___mmHg diastolic
140;90
Which hormone increases blood pressure?
Angiotensin II
According to the principle of ___ , blood in th emiddle or an artery flows faster than that near walls.
Laminar flow
Valves are found in:
veins and lymphatic vessels
Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called:
globulins
Which of these is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Fever
In order for a helper T cell to recognize an antigen, the antigen must be bound to
an MHC protein
This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus, it begins ot shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in elderly
thymus
Interferons:
interfere with viral replication within cells
The Frank-Starling law of the heart says that
the volume of blood entering the heart difrectly affects the force of contraction
In fetal circulation, the ___ and the ___ insure that most right side blood flow bypasses the lungs
Foramen ovale and ductus anteriosus
Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?
it drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg
Which buffer system accounts for three quarters of all the chemical buffering of the body fluids?
Protein
This hormone, made by the hypothalamus, stimulates collecting ducts and distal convulated tubules to reatin more water:
ADH
Which condition would be most likely to stimulate adosterone secretion?
hyponatremia
Which of the following is least likely to stimulate the thirst center in the hypothalamus?
decreased blood osmolarity
Deficiency of this mineral is a cause of tetany:
calcium
The role the kidney plays in the homeostasis of the body includes all of the following except to:
control lymphocyte count
Which of the following is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli?
proximal convoluted tubule
When blood pressure drops, the jg cells of the kidney secrete renin which indirectly results in
a stimulation of the sense of thirst
Which of the following types of diabetes is caused by hypersecretion of cortisol?
Adrenal diabetes
The major nitrogenous waste product in humans is
urea
The most correct sequence of organs thru which the egg passes from the ovary to the outside is:
infundibulum>isthmus of fallopian tube>body of uterus>cervix>vagina
In a normal person, almost all glucose in the flitrate is transported back into the body in this area
proximal convoluted tubule
This part of the sperm contains enzymes that are used to penetrate the egg
acrosome
During the physical examination of a male, the doctor may palpate the inguinal canal and have the patient cough. What condition could be diagnosed with this test?
inguinal hernia
To regulate temperature of testes, which of the following muscles raises and lowers the scrotum?
cremaster muscle
Sperm maturation and storage occurs mainly in which of the following structures?
Epedidymis
How is it that an embryo differentiates to be a male?
The Y chromosome has the testis-determining factor gene.
The most correct route for the sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the outside is:
epididymis>ductus deferens>ampulla>ejaculatory duct> urethra
An enlargement of this organ will impair both sexual reproduction and voiding in the man:
prostate
The midpiece of the spermaozoan tail contains the:
mitochondria
If a pregnant woman has a big increase in blood pressure and edema, she is likely suffering from:
pre-eclampsia
The hormone directly responsible for promoting uterine conractions during labor is:
oxytocin
Which of the following statements is true?
the uterus tilts forward over the urinary bladder
Which of the following statement is false?
Cervical cancer is more common among women who have six or more children
Which of the following does not occur with the climateric changes in hormone secretions:
decreased cholesterol levels
After ovulation, which of the following does not occur during the luteal phase?
new follicles begin developing
Which hormone causes enlargement of uterus and softening of the pubic symphysis?
estrogen
The most correct sequence of fluid flow thru the kidney is :
Glomerular capsule>pct>nephron loop>dct>collecting duct
Which of the following is most effective method of breast cancer treatment?
all equally effective
The initial depolarization of the egg membrane at fertilization is called:
fast block
What is the ratio of sperm that reach the egg cell out of those sperm that begin the journey?
1 out of 100,000
Which of the following stages is a hollow sphere with a single layer of squamous cells?
blastocyst (blastula)
Which of the following structures forms the umbilical cord and becomes part of the urinary bladder?
aliantois
The shunt that diverts blood past the fetal linings connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta is the:
ductus arteriousus
This is the most correct sequence of development :
Zygote>morula>plastocyst>embryo>fetus
This type of chemical can cross the placenta from the maternal circulation and cause defects:
teratogen
The blastocyst attaches to and enters the endometrium during:
implantation
The developing embryo is surrounded by and bathed in
amniotic fluid
Electrolytes
Dissociate into anions and cations
The most prevalent cation in plasma is ___ and the most prevalent anion in intracellular fluid is ___.
sodium; phosphate
Implantation occurs ____ after fertilization
6 days
Which of the following functions in both the urinary and reproductive system
Urethra
The corpus luteum secretes
estrogen and progesterone
In addition to reabsorption, the renal tubule is associated with
secretion
Early pregnancy tests detect___ in urine.
Human chorionci gonadotropin
Which of the following can't pass filtration membranes in kidneys?
large proteins
The nephron has 2 parts, they are the:
glomerulus and renal tubule
Which femal reproductive structure is between the uterus and ovary?
Fallopian tube
Reabsorption moves molecules from the ___ into the ___
Renal tubules; peritubular capillaries
Menstruation is caused by:
a surge in LH
Carbohydrates and proteins yield about __kcal/g, while fats yield about ____kcal/g
4;9
Most of the carbohydrates in the body are found as:
muscle glycogen
An increase in blood glucose will stimulate the release of _____ and most of any excess glucose will be stored as_____.
insulin; fat
Of the macronutrients we consume, ___ is required in the largest daily quanity and _____ is required in the least daily quantity.
Water; protein
Which one of the following vessels would have the highest concentration of glucose?
Hepatic portal vein
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have the highest proportion of:
protein to lipid
The inner membrane of mitochondria or mitochondria cristae contains the protein called ___, which harnesses electrical energy to produce ATP by ____.
ATP synthase; chemiosmosis
The most common lung cancer (characterized by keratin tissue replacing lung tissue) is
squamous cell carcinoma
This is the most correct sequence of air passage from the nose to the alveoli:
nasopharynx>larynx>trachea>bronchia>bronchiole
In this condition, the walls of the alveoli are destroyed, reducing surface area for respiration:
emphysema
Which of the following substances secreted by the cells of the stomach wall is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine?
intrinsic factor
Which of the following does not occur within the large intestine?
digestion of cellulose by digestive enzymes
Which of the following lipoprotein categories containes the least total lipid and yet helps remove excess cholesterol from the body?
HDL's
Which of the following terms describes the transfer of an amino group (NH2) from an amino acid to another molecule?
transamination
What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
Oxygen
If your chest expands, you predict the intrapulmonary pressure to ___ because of ___ law:
decrease; Charles'
Particle stuck in mucus are moved out of the bronchioles, bronchi, & trachea to the ____ by ____.
pharynx; movement of cilia
Each hemoglobin can carry up to ____ O2 molecules that are bound to ___.
4; iron
One effect of hypoxia is
cyanosis
All of the following enzymes digest proteins except
amylase
What are Peyer's patches, and where are they located?
Lymphatic follicles of the ileum
The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because______.
They produce a lubricant, preventing friction between the lungs and the thoracic wall.
Nerve impulses from the dorsal respiratory group will result in:
inspriation
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases_____.
Dalton's Law
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ______.
reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Bile gets its yellow, green color mainly from:
bilirubin
Which is NOT a region of the stomach?
ileum
Conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid results in:
A net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
Oxidative phosphorylation is:
production of ATP from the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
Jaundice is caused by:
increased serum bilirubin
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the _____.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
oxidative phosphorylation
In the first step of the Kreb's Cycle, oxaloacetic acid reacts with what to produce citric acid?
Acetyl CoA
In glycolysis, the first reaction converts glucose to _____.
glucose - 6- phosphate
In the Kreb's Cycle, the enzyme that converts citric acid to isoctric acid is _____.
aconitase
Which molecule will undergo different reactions depending on whether oxygen is plentiful or not?
Pyruvic Acid
The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called:
pulmonary ventilation
This structure is a modified lymphatic vessel that carries lipid laden fluid:
lacteal
Which molecule released in an allergic reaction will result in bronchiole constriction?
histamine
Name the first enzyme, secreted in the mouth, that begins the digestive process.
salivary amylase
Predict what would happen if a person's arterial PCO2 increases.
His or her breathing rate and depth of breathing will increase
The amount of _____ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
thyroxine
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you digest this food?
the pancreas
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which enzyme will help digest the meal?
amylase
Phosphofructokinase converts ___ to ___.
fructose 6 phosphate, fructose 1,6 biphosphate
The enzyme that converts fumaric acid to malic acid is
fumerase
FADH2 is produced
in the Krebs cycle
CO2 is produced
in converting pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase converts ___ to ___.
glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate, 1,3 biphosphoglycerate
Which of these 4 processes is called anaerobic respiration?
glycolysis