40 terms

Animal Systems (Freshmen Biology)

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Circulatory system
system responsible for transporting materials such as oxygen, digested foods, wastes, and hormones throughout the body
Digestive system
system that breaks down foods (biomolecules) and absorb nutrients so that an organism can use them
Endocrine system
system associated with hormones, glands, and regulation
Gland
a body part that makes and releases things like hormones (into blood), breast milk, saliva, sweat, etc.
Metabolism
set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in cells for growth and reproduction, maintainence of structures, and response to environments
Excretory system
organism is able to filter the blood to rid itself of liquid wastes, excess water, and poisons through the organs of this system
Nephron
the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney that helps filter the blood
Immune system
system that destroys harmful microbes that invade an organism and can possibly kill it
White blood cell
cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials; also known as leukocytes (leuko- meaning "white" and -cytes - meaning "cells")
Lymph system
This system is part of the circulatory system. It produces lymphocytes to fight infection that may be found in the blood stream. It also collects, filters (lymph nodes), and transports fluids from around the tissues back to the veins of the circulatory system.
Lymph
the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system; it returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the blood
Lymph nodes
an oval-shaped organ distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach linked with lymph vessels; act as filters or traps for foreign particles
Integumentary system
This system protects the body from harmful organisms that try to enter it. The system also prevents the organism from drying out.
Muscular system
Without this system, an organism would not be able to move. The stomach and intestines depend on this system to move materials through them.
Nervous system
Messages can be sent all over the body of an organism through this system. It directs the behavior and processes such as digestion, circulation, movement, etc.
Neuron
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals; also known as a nerve cell
Reproductive system
This system develops specialized cells that enable organisms to produce offspring.
Hormones
chemical released by a cell, a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism (For example: estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone in reproduction)
Respiratory system
If an organism did not have this system, gases could not be exchanged between the atmosphere and the blood of an organism.
Skeletal system
This system forms a framework for muscles to attach to, and it serves to protect organs inside the organism. It is found on the outside of some organisms and the inside of others. It also plays a role in the immune system.
Atom
is the smallest representative unit of an element (ex. oxygen)
Molecule
two or more atoms bonded together (ex. RNA molecule)
Cell
the smallest unit capable of life, made of multiple molecules (Animal example: epithelial cell)
Tissue
a group of cells working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: epithelial tissue layer)
Epithelial tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; located on the very outside of an organ or organism (i.e. skin) or found lining cavities in hollow organs (i.e. stomach lining); it always has a free surface (no contact with another cell).
Connective tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body (for example: blood, tendons, and fat tissue)
Muscle tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; there are 3 types: skeletal, smooth, & cardiac
Nerve tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions
Organ
a group of tissues working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: stomach)
Organ System
a group of organs working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: digestive system)
Insulin
hormone released by the pancreas when blood sugar (glucose) levels get too high; it causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose, or sugar, from the blood to stabilize blood sugar levels (effect opposite of glucagon)
Diabetes
a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
Antibiotics
used for treatment or prevention of bacterial infection (NOT for treatment of viral infections)
Antibodies
"the good guy" - protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize/kill harmful antigens such as bacteria and viruses
Vaccine
a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens that improves immunity to a particular disease or illness
Homeostasis
the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium within the body, maintained by physiological processes.
Digestive Cavity
a digestive system with one opening - commonly found in jellyfish or corals
Sexual reproduction
Produces genetic variation in a variety of ways due to fertilization and meiosis
Open circulatory system
a circulatory system in which the blood is not contained within blood vessels and is commonly found in insects, crustaceans, and oysters
Book lungs
a type of respiratory system found in spiders