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HISTORY: Civil Rights Movement terms
Terms in this set (20)
Used to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups, such as African Americans, through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers; He took part in founding the CIO and was held accountable for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
The Bakke Case
In Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in the process of admissions was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in certain circumstances
1966 Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to challenge police. An organization (made up of African Americans) that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization changed the policy of the black movement valuing militant ideals rather than peaceful/calm protest
Boston Busing Crisis
Boston schools were controlled by the court tried to desegregate through a system of busing students. The call for desegregation and the first years of busing led to a series of racial protests and riots that brought national attention (particularly from 1974 to 1976)
Black/civil rights leader; tried to spread ideas of black nationalism; did not agreed with either of the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement; he was a minister of the Nation of Islam; he rejected his birth name, for it was his family's slave name
The belief/movement of blacks that should fight back if attacked; this movement pushed blacks to achieve economic independence by promoting their own business.
Black/civil rights activist in the 60's; He was a leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. Starting working with Martin Luther King Jr. but then decided he did not want to. Carmichael was fond of the idea of giving up peaceful demonstrations and using black power. ("black power will smash everything Western civilization has created.")
The Watts Riot
Took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 16, 1965; Marquette Frye was an African American motorist on parole for robbery and he was pulled over for reckless driving on this day
Long Hot Summers
Around the 60s riots became expressions of blacks feelings towards segregation. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders reported 130 separate race riots in the summer of 1967; now initiated by blacks in response to police brutality, poor housing, no jobs, and exclusion from the benefits and promises of American life
Fannie Lou Hammer
Daughter of Mississippi sharecropper who portrayed her story of being jailed for registering to vote in 1962 and how police provoked other inmates to fight/hurt her; she helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Invalidating the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers started firing on demonstrators and they turned them against the tsar; Start of the Revolution.
24th Amendment (1964)
Prohibits federal and state governments from charging poll tax on the people
A civil rights leader/secretary for the NAACP; assassinated at his own home right before Kennedy's speech promoting civil rights and his support for integration; His murder developed enormous amounts of controversy with the government taking immediate action for anti-discrimination principles
Reverend king campaigned to end segregation in all public facilities and he gathered followers, conducted large public and peaceful demonstrations. Police chief Bull Connor, responded by ordering the police to attack, with fire hoses, electric cattle prods, tear gas and police dogs. Americans were horrified, by what they saw on TV.
Organization of civil rights workers who took the bus through southern states in 1961 to stand up against illegal bus segregation
March on Washinton
In Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963 and was used to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans.
Lyndon Johnson and Civil Rights
Lyndon B. Johnson was president after JFK, and he pushed the bill JFK signed forward to finally get passed in the U.S. Congress by a Senate vote of 73-27 and House vote of 289-126. The act was then signed into law by on July 2, 1964.
Nation of Islam
Aka the Black Muslims (religious) founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote the idea of black separatism and Islamic religion