pub speaking midterm
Terms in this set (22)
Reasons to take public speaking
practical benefits - helps develop an array of public speaking skills: become well educated, prepare for important moments, improve success in college and career, develop basical communication skills
personal benefits - learning more about yourself. As you explore and speak about topics and yourself, you find your own voice. Also expands cultural horizons, as it offers samples of different races, cultures, religions. Can be barred by ethnocentrism.
responsible knowledge ( attributes and characteristics )
entails a comprehensive understanding of your topic that allows you to speak effectively and ethically. Includes - main issues of your topic, what authorities say about it, developments in the topic, local applications of the topic.) Responsible knowledge is not perfect or exact, but it is the best that might be expected given the circumstances
practical skills gained form public speaking
become well educated, prepare for important moments, improve success in college and career, develop basical communication skills
verbal&non verbal feedback
non verbal - sitting forward in chairs might mean they cant hear your,body language, puzzled looks, smiling.
internal and external listener distractions
external - auditory, visual, or physical noise for the speaker. Can be a distraction for the audience if a visual aid is left on display for too long ( picture not pertaining to current part of speech.
internal - physocological or emotional distractions the speaker may experience. eg- mind racing, mind going blank, rambling, hunger,
a tendency to presume our own cultural ways of seeing and doing things are the proper and standard way of doing it and others are inferior. seen as a barrier to speechess.
the feeling of anxiety that starts in anticipation of a trigger, in this case public speaking.
process of changing negative self-messages to positive ones,
systematically picturing yourself succeeding as a speaker and practicing your speech with that image in mind
the process of practicing relaxation several times a day to curb anxiety.uses muscle control techniques to reduce physical tension.
extemporaneous speech ( used in class)
a form of presentation in which a speech is carefully prepared and practiced, nbut not wtitten out, memorized, or read.
first step in preparing a speech:
designating a topic. Based on: personal interest, goals to accomplish from this speech, amount of knowledge of topic, interesting topic, enrichment of audience, time effective.
5 types of listening
threshold listening - phase of listening in which we focus on, understand, and interpret the verbal and nonverbal aspects of messages.
critical listening - listening for careful appreciation and evaluation of a message
emphatic listening - phase of listening in which we go beyond rationality to encompassing the human and humane aspects of a message
constructive listening - searching for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects.
4 phases of evaluating support
facts and statistics - needs to have well designated facts and stats to show strength and respect of topic. Facts are concrete views people are forced to agree with and stats are mathematical representations used to illustrate size, predictions, trends, and profits.
Testimony - citing the words or ideas of other people or institutions to support and illustrate your ideas. 3 types - lay, expert, reluctant.
examples - verbal or sensory illustrations that help to clarify your points and ground them in reality. brief example - concise reference to an example to illustrate or develop a point. Extended - more detailed example that speakers develop with their message
narrative - a story that conveys an idea or establishes a mood. CAn help illustrate ideas and relate the audience to the topic.
significance of attitudes, values, and beliefs
the attitudes values and beliefs of an audience are crucial to developing and understanding the audiences demographic. Being well versed in topics regarding religions, group affiliations, morals, ethics, is helpful. Age, education, gender,
purpose of informative speaking
functions to enlighten by sharing ideas and information. You want listeners to pay attention and understand. They reduce ignorance. Informative value is measure by how much new and important information or understanding it provides the audience. audience dynamics is the motivation that influences these choices.
research credibility and validity,
a creditable and valid source can be defined by the following: a running of the authors name, affiliation with any institution, and general legitimacy of the source ( encyclopedia good, wikipedia bad, etc. )
value of personal knowledge and expereince
adds credibility, authenticity, and interest into a speech. Offers unique insights that allow an audience to relate to your speech easier.
3 types of testimony
Expert testimony - comes from people who are qualified by training or experiece to speak as authorities on a subject. most authorative form of testimony
reluctant testimony - one of the most powerful forms of testimony; an exper testifie against and despite their apparent self interest.
Lay testimony - citing the words of views of everyday people on a subject. Adds real life views and authenticity.
importance to repeat and rephrase
citing the direct words of others and your own strengthens them.
communication acheived using facial expressions, eye contact, movements, and gestures. Can be positive or negative.
key world outliner
An outline of a speech containing main points, transiton statements, and attention grabbers in the introduction part.