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17 - The Social Revolution (Essentials)
Terms in this set (89)
The large group of Americans who are not wealth or poor, but are able to live comfortably on the money they earn from their work.
A political philosophy during the second half of the 1900s in which Republican politicians did not increase government spending, but also did not cut popular New Deal programs such as Social Security.
Persistent myth in America that hard work and ingenuity will result in upward social mobility. In the 1950s, the goal was a house in the suburbs, a family with children, a car and a dog.
The spread of cities, especially suburbs, into rural areas. This process usually involves wasted land in which large parking lots divide buildings or large yards separate homes. It necessitates a car-based culture in order to get around.
1950s Ideal Family
Family structure that includes a father who goes to work, a mother who stays home to care for the house and children, and two or three children. This image was perpetuated in early television in shows such as Leave It to Beaver and Father Knows Best. It is heavily influenced by the Cult of Domesticity.
Idea popularized by the young people of the counterculture during the 1960s that sex was beautiful and being free included freeing oneself from society's rules about sexual behavior.
Statement made by arresting police officers advising people of their right to remain silent and their right to an attorney.
Cult of Domesticity
Idea popularized in the early 1800s with the onset of the Industrial Revolution that certain tasks and issues were appropriate for women. These did not include work outside the home or politics. This has also been called the Women's Sphere.
Prejudice or discrimination against a person because of his or her gender. It was a word that first became common during the feminist movement of the 1970s.
Being opposed to abortion.
Being in favor of legalized abortion.
A position that a candidate must take in order to receive support from a group of voters. A candidate's position on abortion is often a make-or-break factor in American politics.
Idea that women can be promoted in business, the military, or politics but can never rise to the highest levels. The phrase was first coined in 1978.
People who see change as a positive and like the idea of using the government as a way to implement large-scale changes. In modern times, the Democrats represent this political idea.
The idea that the government should collect more taxes and do many things. This is a liberal idea.
In terms of politics, being on this side means a person is liberal.
People who are skeptical of change. They do not want government to be involved in peoples' lives any more than necessary. In modern times, the Republicans represent this political idea.
The idea that the government should only do what people cannot do on their own. This is a conservative idea.
In terms of politics, being on this side means a person is conservative.
A shift in the Republican Party that occurred between the 1960s and 1980s. It promoted strict conservative ideas and was a reaction to the strong liberal political atmosphere of the Great Society.
A coalition of Christian religious organizations begun in the 1970s that promote conservative ideas and candidates.
Summer of Love
Nickname for the summer of 1967 in San Francisco during which the hippie culture in that city climaxed.
Major music festival held in New York in 1969. It featured many of the greatest groups of the decade and is sometimes considered the climax of the counterculture.
Music festival held in California in 1969. It was the opposite of Woodstock in many ways. It was on the opposite end of the country, was violent, and showed the worst of the counterculture.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
November 22, 1963 - Dallas, Texas.
Second Wave Feminism
A time period in the 1970s when women were actively promoting their rights. The time period included the Roe v. Wade case, legalization of birth control, as well as failed push to pass the Equal Rights Amendment.
Conflicts in the 1980s between social conservatives and liberals. They focused on such things as school prayer, women in the military, and explicit lyrics in music.
The neighborhoods that grow up around a large city. They grew rapidly in the 1950s.
A suburban city built by William Levitt. The first was in New York. Eventually six more were built.
The neighborhood in San Francisco that became the center of hippie culture, especially during the Summer of Love of
Communities formed by hippies during the 1960s in which they sought to implement their philosophy about the ideal ways to live. In some they abolished private property, in others they experimented with free love. The most famous was The Farm. Like the utopian communities of the early 1800s, they usually failed.
Nickname for President Reagan's economic policies. He wanted lower taxes on the wealthy and lower regulations on business.
Idea that the best way to promote economic growth is to lower taxes and reduce regulations on business so that business will produce more.
The idea that reducing taxes on the wealthy would eventually benefit everyone since the upper classes would use the extra money to hire workers or make purchases that would pass the money down through the economy.
Nickname for Ronald Reagan's economic policies. Coined by George H. W. Bush, it criticized the idea that tax breaks for the wealthy would every benefit the middle or lower classes.
The process of reducing laws and rules on business. In theory, the cost of complying with such rules slows down business, so reducing them will improve the economy.
Dr. Jonas Salk
Doctor who discovered a vaccine to prevent Polio.
Republican president during the 1950s. He championed Modern Republicanism. He did not want to increase federal spending but also did not cut New Deal programs. He oversaw the arms race during the Cold War, but his presidency is remembered as a time of peace and economic growth.
The largest generation of Americans. They were born between 1945 and 1965. They were the children of the Greatest Generation and grew up during the 1950s, were teenagers and young adults during the 1960s, fought in Vietnam, and are the parents of Generation X. Most of them are now retiring.
A group of social critics during the 1950s, based in New York City and San Francisco, or questioned mainstream culture. The embraced jazz rather than rock and roll, wore dark clothes, drank coffee rather than alcohol, and popularized the idea of "cool."
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Organization that provides lawyers to defend people they believe have had their basic rights violated. For example, they defend freedom of speech cases and in the 1920s, helped defend John Scopes.
Young people during the 1960s who rejected traditional cultural norms and values. They listened to rock and roll, experimented with drugs, broke rules about sexual behavior. They wore bright colors, created communes, supported many of the social movements of the decade, and generally opposed the war in Vietnam.
President who took office when Kennedy was assassinated. He implemented the Great Society and War on Poverty, and is also remembered as the president who oversaw the bulk of the Vietnam War.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in the 1950s and 1960s who pushed the Court to rule favorably on numerous cases related to civil rights.
Scientist who wrote Silent Spring about the dangers of pesticides and launched the modern environmental movement.
Lady Bird Johnson
First lady and white of President Lyndon Johnson. She promoted education and environmental legislation. She is famous for declaring "where flowers bloom, so does hope."
Feminist in the 1960s who wrote The Feminine Mystique criticizing the traditional role of women. Her book launched the feminist movement of the 1970s. She founded NOW.
Feminist who founded Ms Magazine in 1972.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Organization founded by Betty Friedan to promote women's rights.
Women who worked against ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. She argued that the law would result in undesirable changes for women.
Former senator, secretary of state and first lady who ran for president in 2008 and 2016. She lost the primary in 2008 and the general election in 2016, but was the first woman to be nominated for president by one of the two major political parties.
Sandra Day O'Connor
First woman to serve on the Supreme Court.
Republican senator from Arizona who ran for president in 1964 but lost. He was the first to promote conservative principles that would become known as the New Right.
Champion of the Religious Right who founded the Moral Majority in 1979 to promote conservative candidates.
Organization founded in 1979 by Jerry Falwell to promote conservative candidates and policies.
People who make decisions about who they will vote for based on the candidates' positions on social issues such as abortion or prayer in schools.
Law and Order Candidate
A candidate who promotes strict law enforcement and promises lower crime rates.
Young materialist people obsessed with their image, comfort and economic prosperity during the 1980s. The name is short for young, urban professional.
Voters who had supported Democrats in the 1960s and 1970s but chose to vote for Ronald Reagan in 1980. Some of these voters included Catholics, values voters, and White working-class voters.
Government program during the 1950s to deport millions of Mexican Americans who had come to the United States, mostly as farmworkers.
The Great Society
Collection of laws and problems implemented by President Lyndon Johnson to improve life in America. They included his War on Poverty as well as programs to protect the environment and Medicare and Medicaid.
War on Poverty
Name given to the laws promoted by President Lyndon Johnson designed specifically to help the poor. These included the Jobs Corps which provided training, as well as education laws such as Head Start and college financial aide.
Program that provides health insurance for the elderly. It is a signature program created as part of the Great Society in the 1960s by President Johnson.
Program that provides health insurance for lower-income Americans. It is run independently by states and goes by different names in the different states.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Government agency responsible for enforcing laws designed to protect the environment.
Nickname for the Servicemen's Readjustment Act. Passed in 1944 it gave money to veterans to attend college or buy houses. It had a tremendous impact on the education levels of adult Americans and also led to a boom in suburban development.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Major revision to immigration law passed in 1965 that eliminated national quotas and instead encouraged family reunification. It led to a tremendous increase in immigration from Asia, Latin America and Africa.
Clean Air Act
Law passed in the 1960s that regulates air pollution.
Clean Water Act
Law passed in the 1960s that regulates water population.
International agreement signed in 1997 that established as framework for future greenhouse gas emissions reduction treaties.
Follow-up treaty to the Kyoto Protocol that sets greenhouse gas emissions targets beginning in 2020.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Constitutional amendment that would guarantee equal treatment under the law for women. It was passed by Congress and multiple states in the 1970s, but never ratified by enough states to become law.
Addition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act that guaranteed equal access for girls. One major consequence has been the funding of girls athletics in high schools and colleges.
Economic Recovery Tax Act
1981 law that reduced the overall tax rate to 25% over three years. It was the centerpiece of Ronald Reagan's economic policy.
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 Supreme Court cases that guaranteed a lawyer to all those accused of a crime.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court case which banned the use of confessions or statements made by a defendant before they had been advised of their right to remain silent. This case led to the now-famous Miranda Warnings.
Griswold v. Connecticut
1965 Supreme Court case legalizing birth control.
Roe v. Wade
1973 Supreme Court case that legalized abortion in the first trimester of a pregnancy, and permitted some restrictions on abortions in the second and third trimesters. It remains one of the most controversial Supreme Court decisions.
Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem
Famous quote from Ronald Reagan's inaugural address that captures his ideas about the size of government.
Debilitating neurological disease that produces paralysis in the legs. A vaccine was discovered by Dr. Jonas Salk.
The slow processes of increasing the Earth's average temperature. It is due to human activity and could lead to major changes in weather, sea level, and other natural processes.
The belief that global warming is not happening or that it will not result in significant changes. It is an idea first promoted by businesses that will suffer if limits are place on greenhouse gas emissions.
Any form of contraception. The term was coined by Margaret Sanger.
Medical procedure to end a pregnancy by choice.
Ralph Ellison's award winning novel about the plight of African Americans in the 1950s.
Allen Ginsberg's famous poem that helped define the Beat Generation. It was the subject of an important freedom of speech court case when authorities tried to confiscate copies from a bookstore due to its homosexual subjects.
On the Road
Book by Jack Kerouac that helped define what it mean to be Beat during the 1950s.
Book written by Rachel Carson about the dangers of pesticides. The book helped launch the modern environmental movement.
The Feminine Mystique
Book by Betty Friedan critical of the role of women in society. The book helped spark the feminist movement of the 1970s.
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