Chapter 20 and 21 Review
Terms in this set (100)
Who invented the spinning jenny?
How did labor in British families change in the eighteenth century?
Family members shifted labor away from unpaid work for household consumption and toward work for wages.
How did cotton transform the textile industry?
Cotton could be spun mechanically with much greater efficiency than wool or flax, helping to solve the shortage of thread for textile production.
What did James Watt gain from his partnership with Matthew Boulton?
Capital and skills in salesmanship.
The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
Usually a response to the wishes of the families.
Why did eighteenth-century Britain have a shortage of wood?
Wood had been over-harvested it was the primary source of heat in all homes and a basic raw material in industry.
Thomas Malthus argued in his essay on the principle of population (1798) that
population tends to increase beyond the means of subsistence.
How did railroads affect the nature of production?
Markets became broader, encouraging manufacturers to create larger factories with more sophisticated machines.
What did Henry Cost develop?
The puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined with coke.
What was the result of the development of the British economy between 1780 and 1851?
Much of the growth in the gross national product was eaten up by population growth.
What did the Mines Act of 1842 prohibit?
Underground work for all women and girls as well as boys under ten
David Ricardo's iron law of wages states that
the pressure of population growth will always sink wages to subsistence level
What was the major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution?
James Watt's development of the steam engine between the 17600s and 1780s
How did industry grow in continental Europe?
Belgium led continental Europe in adopting British technology for production.
In ninteenth-century Germany, Fritz Harkort sought
to match English achievement in machine production as quickly as possible, even at great, unprofitable expense.
Industrial development in continental Europe was slowed for two decades by
the Napoleonic Wars
How did class-consciousness form during the Industrial Revolution?
As modern industry created conflict between industrialists and laborers, individuals came to believe that classes existed and developed a sense of class feeling.
The Great Exhibition of 1815 commemorated the
industrial dominance of Britain
How did the origins of industrialists change as the Industrial Revolution progressed?
It became harder to form new firms, and instead, industrialists were increasingly likely to have inherited their wealth.
Who was William Cockerill?
an English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium
Who were the Luddites?
British handicraft workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery they believed were putting them out of work
What was the key development in the eighteenth century that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature?
Establishment of limited liability investment
Why were cottage workers, accustomed to the putting-out system, reluctant to work in the new factories even when they received good wages?
In a factory, workers had to keep up with the machine and follow its relentless tempo
In "The Conditions of the Working Class in England", Friedrich Engles stated that
the British middle classes were guilty of "mass murder" and "wholesale robbery"
The Factory Act of 1833 constituted a major victory in the prevention of the exploitation of children in that it
banned children under nine years of age from employment
Owing to the Industrial Revolution, living and working conditions for the poor
improved only after 1840
What was an effect of the Factory Acts of 1833?
It limited the work of children and thereby broke the pattern of families working together in factories.
In the "separate spheres" pattern of gender relationships,
women generally stopped working outside of the home after the first child was born.
How did older members of the population seek to control sexuality of the working class youths?
They supported the establishment of sex-segregated employment
Which law outlawed labor unions and strikes in Britain?
Combination Acts of 1799.
The reformer Robert Owens sought to
create a single large national union for British workers
In the eighteenth century, railroad construction on the European continent
featured varying degrees of government involvement.
What was the key demand of the Chartist movement?
All men must be given the right to vote.
in 1850, in what occupational did the largest number of British people work?
Farming and agriculture.
What major problem in the textile industry was solved by the inventions of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright?
A weaver required several spinners to stay steadily employed.
How did iron become the basic building block of the British economy in the nineteenth century?
The spread of coke melting and the development of steam-powered rolling mills increased production enormously and reduced the price of iron products.
Why do many historians now believe that the continued concentration by the French on artisan production of luxury made sense in an era of industrialization?
France had long dominated the sector of production; it allowed France to capitalize on its known-how and international reputation.
Why were the young, generally unmarried women who worked for wages outside the home confined to certain "women jobs"?
The sexual division of labor replicated a long-standing pattern of gender segregation and inequality.
As the business world grew increasingly complex, what did the wives and daughters of successful businessmen discover in eighteenth-century Europe?
There were few job opportunities for women, as most businessmen assumed that middle-class wives and daughters should avoid work in offices and factories.
In his 1835 study of the cotton industry, what did Andrew Ure conclude about conditions in most factories?
They were not harsh and even quite good.
What was the function of Crystal Palace?
It was the location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London.
The following is an excerpt from the testimony of Sir Robert Peel during an 1818 debate in the House of Commons about child labor laws:" It was notorious..." What claim did Peel make in his testimony?
He asserted that children could not work in a factory for fifteen hours without doing harm to their health and constitution.
In her advice to women in the middle class, Sarah Stickney Ellis stated: "Much more congenial to the highest attributes..." Based on this passage, what did Ellis believe was a woman's primary obligation each day?
To think about how best to help those who need assistance.
On Map 20.1: The Industrial Revolution in England, ca. 1850, what happens to be the largest industrial area?
The area surrounding Manchester and Liverpool.
Based on Map 20.1: The Industrial Revolution in England, ca. 1850, what appears to be the most important components of the Industrial Revolution other than coal mining?
Textiles, iron, and machinery.
Based on Map 20.2: Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850, where are the most important emerging industrial areas in France located?
Paris, Lyons, Lille.
Based on Map 20.2: Continental Industrialization, ca, 1850, where is the largest emerging industrial area located?
the following is an excerpt from the testimony of Ann Eggley, an eighteen-year-old mine worker :" Im sure I don't known to spell my name..." Which of the following is implied by Eggley's testimony?
Everyone in her family was required to work in order to get by.
The following is an excerpt from Peter Gaskell's "The Manufacturing Population of England": "... the small farmer, spinner, or hand-loom weaver.." Which of the following claims did Gaskell make?
The preindustrial textile worker lived a sustainable, moral, and satisfying life.
The following is an excerpt from Peter Gaskell's "The Manufacturing Population of England": "Prior to the year 1760, s were.." According to Gaskell, by what criteria was the period 1760-1800 the "golden times of manufactures"?
As measured by the morality of workers.
At the Congress of Vienna, the victorious allies
were guided by the principle of the balance of power.
The allied powers at the Congress of Vienna were determined to
avoid the creation of hostility and resentment in France.
The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819
defined an idea of German nationalism built around a common language, culture, and set of values.
What did Klemens von Metternich and Alexander I proclaim at the Troppau Conference in 1820?
Their support for the principal of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever threatened.
What did the early French socialist thinkers find disturbing about the emerging industrial
They believed that industrial society fomented selfish individualism and split the community into isolated fragments.
Why did Klemens von Metternich, as Austrian foreign minister, have to oppose the spread of nationalism in Europe?
Austria was a multiethnic empire, and the spread of nationalism among its different ethnic groups threatened to dissolve the empire.
The romantic movement was characterized by
a belief in emotional exuberance and unrestrained imagination
The romantic poet William Wordsworth conceived of poetry as the
spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility
Romantics and early nationalists investigated folk songs, folk tales, and proverbs in order to...?
find the unique greatness of every people in its folk culture
In their war of independence against the Ottoman Turks, the Greeks ultimately won the support of
Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Composers in the romantic movement
abandoned well-defined structures and used a wide range of forms to evoke powerful emotions
Many Europeans and Americans embraced the Greek Revolution because
of love of Greek classical culture.
What was one of Karl Marx's most important criticisms of the French utopian socialists?
Their utopian schemes were not realistic.
Karl Marx argued that socialism would be established
by violent revolution
According to the doctrine of laissez faire, the government should intervene in
the economy as little as possible.
According to Joseph Proudhon in the nineteenth century, poetry was
profit stolen from workers.
What did Count Henri de Saint-Simon believe in the nineteenth century?
The key to progress was proper social organization
The British Corn Laws of 1815 were enacted with the goal of
forbidding the importation of foreign grain unless prices in Britain reached very aristocratic landowners in Britain.
In the nineteenth century, how did Eugene Delacroix's work typically feature?
Dramatic, colorful scenes.
In Great Britain, the Great Reform Bill of 1832
gave greater representation to the new, industrial areas of the nation.
What was the driving force in history according to Marx in the nineteenth century?
The economic relationship between classes.
In the nineteenth century, how did Ireland's population grow despite extreme poverty?
Extensive cultivation of the humble potato provided sufficient nutrition for population growth.
How did Charles X of France seek to rally political support for himself in 1830?
He invaded Algeria and established it as a French territory.
What was the effect of France's Constitutional Charter in the post-Napoleonic period?
It secured most of the gains made by the middle class and peasantry during the intellectual and artistic freedom.
What was the most important influence on the peaceful mid-century reforms in Great Britain?
Political competition between the aristocracy and middle class.
In 1848, what reform did the French government refuse that created a sense of class injustice?
What reform did France's Second Republic institute in 1848?
The right to vote for all adult men.
How did the French provisional government respond to the worsening depression and rising unemployment in 1848?
It established national workshops to provide employment in public works projects.
Which social groups composed the revolutionary alliance during the revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe?
Students and urban workers.
In 1848, how did the Hungarian revolutionaries envision a future Hungary?
As a unified, centralized Hungarian nation
During the Prussian revolution in 1848, why did the alliance between middle-class liberals and workers dissolve?
Workers demanded a series of democratic and vaguely socialist reforms.
Why was the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849 unable to create a "Greater Germany"?
Determined to maintain its empire, Austria would not agree to a Greater Germany that separated German-speaking lands from non-German territories in the empire.
The Quadruple Alliance, the nations that defeated Napoleon, included
Russia, Prussia , Austria, and Great Britain.
In December 1825, some three thousand Russian army officers inspired by liberal ideas staged a protest against which new tsar?
Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist, envisioned mathematically precise communities called "phalanxes" and also urged
the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom.
Germaine de Stael urged the French to throw away worn-out classical models and extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of the writers and thinkers of
In 1830, an unsuccessful revolution failed to re-create the country of
What was the result of the "June Days" in France in 1848?
The triumph of the republican army under General Louis Cavaignac, after street fighting and the death or injury of more than ten thousand people.
in 1849, the revolution in Hungary was brought under control with the help of 130,000 troops sent by
the Russian Empire.
Victor Hugo's political evolution was exactly the opposite of Wordsworth's, whose
youthful radicalism gave way to middle aged caution.
The Chartist movement in Britain in the 1830s and 1840s demanded
universal male suffrage
According to Map 21.1: Europe in 1815, which countries were considered the Great Powers of Europe in the first half of the nineteenth century?
Great Britain, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, France, and the Austrian Empire
According to Map 21.2: Peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1815, which nationalities dominated the Habsburg monarchy?
Germans and Hungarians
According to Map 21.1: Europe in 1815, why was the Austrian Empire able to maintain order in most of Europe between 1815 and 1848?
Owing to its large size, the Austrian Empire was able to influence the actions of the Kingdom of Prussia, thus holding a greater position within the German Confederation.
According to Map 21.2: Peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1815, which peoples were located within the Kingdom of Hungary?
Germans, Hungarians, Slovaks, Romanians, Ruthians , Croats and Serbs
The following excerpt is from the Karlsbad Decrees, a set of policies that clamped down on liberal nationalists in the universities and press:" The confederated governments mutually pledge.." This passage suggests that the authors of the decrees saw universities as
potential centers of political subversion.
The following excerpt is from the Karlsbad Decrees, a set of policies that clamped down on liberal nationalists in the universities and press:" The Diet shall have the right.." This passage amounts to a sweeping attempt at
The following excerpt is from the introduction to Jacob and Wihelm Children's Stories and Household Tales:" The true value of these tales must really be set quite high.."The Grimms linked Snow White and Sleeping Beauty to
characters from German myths.
The following excerpt is from the introduction to Jacob and Wihelm Children's Stories and Household Tales:"These folktales have kept intact German myth.." The Grimms saw folktales as windows into
the distant German past.
The following rights were listed in an 1848 political pamphlet entitled Demands of the German People: " Unconditional freedom of the press.." This list of rights suggests that its authors believed in
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