The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.
A) social location
B) the social imperative
*C) the sociological perspective
D) social integration
A passion for looking beyond the obvious or surface-level explanations for social behavior is referred to as:
A) social analysis
D) revealing empirical reality.
The two general categories of sociological research are known as:
A) deductive and inductive
B) independent and dependent
C) feminist and patriarchal
*D) quantitative and qualitative
__________ is the lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our sense of self, and become functioning members of society.
A) Social interaction
B) Social stratification
The subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as:
A) selection bias
While a/an _________ perspective directs attention to large-scale social phenomena, a/an __________ perspective concentrates on the details of interaction between people and small groups.
A) functionalist, interactionist
B) microsociological, macrosociological *C) macrosociological, microsociological
D) multilevel, single level
_____________________ means that a researcher is successful in measuring what he or she intends to measure.
D) response rate
The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measure the next time he or she tests a hypothesis is:
A) response rate
A proposed relationship between two variables that a sociologist studies is known as a(n):
A) natural experiment B) reliability C) operationalization *D) hypothesis
Conflict theory is primarily based in the work of:
A) Herbert Spencer. *B) Karl Marx. C) August Comte. D) Emile Durkheim.
Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?
A) functionalists B) developmentalists *C) symbolic interactionists D) conflict theorists
The sociological imagination:
A) makes us aware that issues such as divorce should be viewed as the private problems of individuals. *B) enables people to understand the link between their personal experiences and the social context in which they occur. C) cannot be applied on a global scale. D) guides most people's ordinary conduct in everyday life.
A __________ is an explanation of the relationship between specific facts.
A) proposition B) precept *C) theory D) concept
The belief that all social groups are systems whose parts are interdependent is characteristic of:
A) conflict theory. B) symbolic interactionism. C) exchange theory. *D) functionalism.
Erving Goffman used the language of the theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as:
A) functionalism B) stage theory *C) dramaturgical theory D) sui generis
What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?
A) common sense B) the commutation process *C) the scientific method D) research analysis
Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.
A) education *B) class conflict C) family D) religion
Functionalists and conflict theorists tend to focus on the ________, or large scale patterns of society, in conducting their analyses.
A) symbolic level B) micro level C) interactionist level *D) macro level
__________ analysis involves the summary of data in nonnumerical ways in order to discover underlying meanings and to build theory.
A) Methodological *B) Qualitative C) Hypothetical D) Quantitative
The question, "Would you get the same results if you repeated the measurement," is related to:
*A) reliability. B) repeatability. C) validity. D) triangulation.
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.
A) science B) experience C) tradition *D) culture
What term is used to describe children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in the wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron"?
A) deprived *B) feral C) mentally challenged D) developmentally disabled
23) Mores that members of a society or culture consider vitally important, often result in the creation of __________ which are enforced by sanctions and punishments:
A) taboos. B) beliefs *C) laws D) gossip
An American who criticizes people from India as being uneducated and backwards for suffering from malnutrition when there are so many cattle available as a source of food, is exhibiting:
A) cultural evaluation. B) absolutism. *C) ethnocentrism. D) cultural relativism.
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.
*A) gender socialization B) ego identity C) resocialization D) role diffusion
Beliefs and traditions are considered __________ by sociologists.
*A) nonmaterial culture B) cultural transmitters C) cultural commodities D) material culture
__________ is the view that all cultures have intrinsic worth and that each culture must beevaluated and understood according to its own standards.
A) Cultural evaluation *B) Cultural relativism C) Ethnocentrism D) Absolutism
Smaller groups that share characteristics which distinguish it from a broader culture are referred to as a/an:
A) deviant culture *B) subculture C) counterculture D) culture
The process by which cultural elements become connected and mutually interdependent is called:
*A) cultural integration. B) cultural adaptation. C) cultural transmission. D) cultural lag.
What is the term used to describe a disruption or controversy in a cultural system resulting from the unequal rates at which different cultural elements change?
A) uneven cultural development B) cultural maladaptation *C) cultural lag D) cultural transition
Books and weapons are examples of:
A) a cultural anachronism. B) a latent culture. *C) material culture. D) nonmaterial culture.
A symbol is:
*A) something that stands for or represents something else and is given meaning by those who use it. B) any gesture that carries meaning to a "receiver." C) any word or phrase that carries meaning to a "receiver." D) a verbal representation of the material or nonmaterial culture.
The tradition of wearing a suit at a wedding is an illustration of a:
A) core value. B) more. *C) folkway. D) cultural law.
__________ is the term that describes the spread of cultural elements, both material and nonmaterial, from one society to another.
A) Cultural lag B) Cultural intervention *C) Cultural diffusion D) Cultural integration
What do sociologists call two or more people who regularly interact and feel some sense of solidarity or common identity?
A) a dyad B) an interactive group *C) a social group D) a crowd
__________ refers to patterns of expected behavior attached to a particular status.
A) Master status B) Achieved status *C) Role D) Ascribed status
__________ groups are formal, emotionally cool, and often temporary groups.
A) Emotive B) Primary *C) Secondary D) Close
What are the three primary variables in determining one's social class?
A) income, education, sex B) race, sex, residence C) race, sex, income *D) income, education, occupational prestige
A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking Army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person's .________
*A) master status B) ascribed status C) status set D) social status
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend upon one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion was a concept that he termed ________.
*A) organic solidarity B) Gesellschaft C) mechanical solidarity D) Gemeinschaft
Ferdinand Tönnies' term for the type of society he referred to as the "intimate community" was ________. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.
A) mechanical society; organic society B) Gesellschaft; Gemeinschaft *C) Gemeinschaft; Gesellschaft D) organic society; mechanical society
Believing that all football players are academically challenged, that all African Americans are great athletes, and that all women can cook well are examples of ________.
A) the relativist fallacy B) cultural relativism C) culture shock *D) stereotyping
To show ourselves as expert role players and to gain positive recognition from others, we often have additional people work with us to ensure that our role communicates to others the ideas that we want them to form about us. This is referred to as ________.
A) face-saving B) social manipulation C) cooperation *D) teamwork
Facial expressions, posture, and gestures are all examples of ________.
*A) body language B) role performance C) interpretations D) personal images
Which sociological perspective is most closely linked to microsociology?
*A) symbolic interactionism B) the feminist perspective C) structural functionalism D) the conflict perspective
Signs that identify a position in society that someone occupies are referred to as ________.
A) achieved master status *B) status symbols C) ascribed master status D) inherited status
Mead described the ability to understand broader cultural norms and judge what a typical person might think or do, as an awareness of:
A) significant others. *B) the generalized other. C) the superego. D) role-taking.
The people, groups, and social institutions that provide the critical information needed for children to become fully functioning members of society are known as:
A) norm makers. B) role models. *C) agents of socialization. D) significant others.
When Cooley used the term "the looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that:
A) we see our parents in ourselves. *B) people see themselves as they believe others see them. C) our children are a reflection of ourselves. D) people are narcissistic.
Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?
A) Select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, share the results. B) Choose a research method, select a topic, collect the data, formulate a hypothesis. C) Review the literature, select a topic, collect the data, choose a research method. *D) Select a topic, collect the data, review the literature, share the results.
1) __________ refers to a category of people who share a common position in a vertical hierarchy of differential social reward.
A) A vertical social category B) A social gathering C) Social esteem D) Social class
2) According to ____________________ Theory, an offical negative label on an individual may provoke further deviance from the individual.
A) Differential Association B) Anomie C) Conflict D) Labeling
3) __________ refers to either a overgeneralized positive or negative attitude toward an entire category of people.
A) Prejudice B) Ableism C) Racism D) Scapegoating
4) __________ refers to the net accumulated assets, including homes, land, automobiles, jewelry, factories, stocks and bonds that a person or family controls.
A) Personal property B)Wealth C) Worth D) Income
5) In Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance, acceptance of both the means and the goals is:
A) rebellion B) innovation C) retreatism D) conformity
6) __________ is the process by which minorities shed their cultural differences and blend in with the dominant group.
A) Pluralism B) Assimilation C) Segregation D) Subjugation
7) A change in an individual's or group's position in a stratification hierarchy is known as:
A) social skyrocketing. B) social mobility. C) social immobility D) downward slide
8) A term of confinement in jail or prison is an example of:
A) a positive sanction. B) an informal social control C) a negative sanction. D) how deviance is defined.
9) Generally speaking, sociologists considered race as
A) social constructions. B) imaginary. C) biological categories. D) genetic formations.
10) A minority group, whether racial, ethnic, religious, or gender-based, is defined above all by its:
A) lack of power. B) population size. C) subjugation. D) assimilation.
11) The ideology that maintains that one race is inherently superior to another is termed:
A) prejudice. B) racism. C) scapegoating. D) bigotry.
12) __________ refers to a pattern in which minority groups maintain much of their cultural identity, yet do not experience significant discrimination, and participate in common economic and political institutions.
A) The mixing pot B) Legal protection C) Pluralism D) Cultural accomodation
13) __________ refers to the division of a population into ranked categories with different levels of access to scarce and valued resources.
A) Social graduation B) Social issue C) Social ranks D) Social stratification
14) __________ refers to treating individuals unequally and unjustly on the basis of their group memberships.
A) Prejudice B) Racism C) Scapegoating D) Discrimination
15) __________ refers to a broad overgeneralization about a category of people that is applied to all members of the category.
A) Ethnocentrism B) Stereotype C) Scapegoating D) Racism
16) __________ refers to a category of people who have come to be identified as sharing physical characteristics such as skin color or facial features.
A) Stereotype B) Race C) Ethnicity D) Minority
17) A/an __________ is a category of people who share cultural elements in common such as language, national origin, and religion.
A) ethnic group B) race C) stereotype D) minority group
18) __________ describes the physical and social separation of dominant and minority groups.
A) Segregation B) Subjugation C) Assimilation D) Pluralism
19) In Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance, rejection of both the means and goals is:
A) innovation B) rebellion C) conformity D) ritualism
20) The inability to meet the basic necessites of life is called being in ________________.
A) the working class. B) poverty. C) underclass. D) ghetto people.
21) The term "deviance" is best defined as:
A) serious violation of consistent moral codes. B) behaviors defined as aberrant by powerful moral leaders. C) a violation of a formal statute enacted by a legitimate government. D) behavior, beliefs, or conditions that are viewed by relatively powerful segments of society to be serious violations of important norms.
22) __________ is the extermination of all or most of the members of a minority group.
A) Pluralism B) Genocide C) Assimilation D) Eugenics
23) In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which there is only one "right" viewpoint and suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called ________.
A) group polarization B) mental programming C) groupthink D) brainwashing
24)What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
A) the West B) the North C) the South D) the Midwest
25) Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
A) folkways B) ethics C) values D) crimes
26) The term used to refer to forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women is
A) compulsory heterosexuality. B) gendered institutions. C) machismo. D) patriarchy.
27) Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called ________ mobility.
A) automatic B) structural C) exchange D) intragenerational
28)What is Durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?
A) negative affective state B) compurgation C) anomie D) primogeniture
29)What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
A) intragenerational mobility B) exchange mobility C) structural mobility D) intergenerational mobility
30)What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?
A) the glass escalator B) radical feminism C) minority group D) a counterculture
31) A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.
A) primary group B) community C) secondary group D) clique
32) ________ is society's unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women.
A) Gender stratification B) Matriarchy C) Patriarchy D) Androgyny
33) ________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.
A) Social networks B) Secondary societies C) Cyber socializations D) Electronic communities
34) Theorists who suggest that the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a "reserve labor force" is most aligned with the ________ perspective.
A) symbolic interactionist B) conflict C) functionalist D) structural
35) A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.
A) social order B) social guideline C) social control D) sanction
36) Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.
A) social networks B) reference groups C) secondary groups D) out-groups
37) Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
A) stereotyping B) profiling C) degradation ceremonies D) sanctions
38) A leader of a group whose responsibility would be to keep the group moving towards its goal is classified as a(n) ________ leader.
A) authoritarian B) instrumental C) expressive D) democratic
39)Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?
A) symbolic interactionists B) conflict theorists C) functionalists D) neo-conflict theorists
40)While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.
A) anthropological B) biological C) philosophical D) psychological
41) Government acts both as an agent of social control and as an agent that increases resentments and tensions in society
43) In the United State, those with money are perceived to have more power than those without money.
44) Overall growth in the size of a population increases problems related to social control.
47) There are no negative consequences as a result of positive prejudices, such as the common belief that all Asian Americans are highly intelligent.
48) A wide variety of acts have been considered deviant at some place, or some time, or by someone.
50)Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.
1) __________ refers to a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.
A) Reality construction B) Objectification C) Myth D) Religion
2) __________ refers to a movement designed to revitalize faith by returning to the traditional ways the religion was practiced in the past.
A) Evangelism B) Secularization C) Fundamentalism D) Ecumenism
3) Ecology is the study of which of the following?
A) the cycles and flow that sustain life B) the relationship among life forms C) the relationship between life forms and the inorganic environment D) all of the above
4) Comparitively speaking, which of the following is the most resistant to change? (yes, there is one best answer)
A) religion B) education C) the economy D) the family
5) Durkheim used which term in referring to things that are set apart from the everyday world, and inspire awe and reverence?
A) faith B) the profane C) the sacred D) ritual
6) The functionalist view of education focuses on:
A) how education serves the political system. B) how education maintains the stratification system. C) how education serves as a force in increasing social integration and solidarity. D) the relationships between students, teachers and parents.
7) Which is not considered one of the predominant manifest functions of education?
A) cultural expansion and change B) social placement C) teaching student's emotional management D) cultural storage
8) Durkheim referred to the ordinary objects of everyday life as:
A) the sacred. B) faith. C) ritual. D) the profane.
9) Demography is the study of which of the following?
A) population characteristics B) population growth C) population movements D) all of the above
10) Assuming new roles and learning proper behavior in interacting with peers and teachers is an element of which of the functions of education?
A) innovation B) socialization C) social placement D) tracking
11) What is the term for the structural and cultural changes that accompanied the industrial revolution?
A) post-modernization B) infrastructure decline C) modernization D) a social movement
12) If you needed information on the age and sex structure of a population at a given point in time, what would be the best graphic representation of this information?
A) the population pyramid B) the sex ratio C) the sex pyramid D) the age-gender triangle
13) In maintaining that religion is the opiate of the masses, Karl Mark implied that:
A) religion makes people go through life as if they were drugged. B) the ruling elite use the church to keep the poor in a drugged state (there is opium in the holy water). C) religious leaders encourage drug use. D) religion lulls people into a false consciousness that allows the ruling elite to maintain their position without protest.
14) Sociologists use the term __________ to describe the situation in which an individual's qualification for a job or social status is based on the completion of some aspect of formal education.
A) medalocracy B) educationalism C) capitalism D) credentialism
15) According to the text's discussion, demography focuses:
A) on population size, distribution and composition, and how birth, death, and migration rates influence each element. B) only on the size and distribution of populations in the free world. C) on urbanization. D) only on counting how many people there are living in the developed world.
16) According to conflict theory, the role of religion in society is to:
A) undermine the power of the state. B) treat existing society as secular and corrupt. C) maintain the unequal economic status quo. D) emphasize a focus on the present.
17) Ecosystem disruption increases with which of the following?
A) rapid population growth B) industrialization C) values emphasizing consumption D) all of the above
18) __________ refers to the process in which religion, challenged by science and modernization, loses its influence on society, thereby threatening its very existence.
A) Fundamentalism B) Secularization C) Ecumenism D) Evangelism
19) The practice of grouping children according to an assessment of their ability is called:
A) reverence. B) affirmative action. C) compensation. D) tracking.
20) A __________ might be heard to say about education that, "In the name of equality and social justice, mass education offers a carrot on a stick, but very few will ever get a bite of the carrot."
A) conflict theorist B) feminist C) symbolic interactionist D) functionalist
21) Changes brought about by the effect of the baby boom moving through the life cycle are an example of social change caused by:
A) institutionalized social change. B) demographic change. C) new technologies. D) social movements.
22) Which of the following is a function of religion, according to the Functionalist Perspective?
A) social control B) social cohesion C) social support D) all of the above
23) What is true religious pluralism?
A) Most religions "take a back seat" to worldly affairs. B) Two religions are dominant and others are tolerated. C) One religion is dominant and several others are subordinate. D) Many religions are tolerated and may often even compete for members.
24) Ecosystem disruption increases with which of the following?
A) rapid population growth B) industrialization C) values emphasizing consumption D) all of the above
25) Globalization has which consequences?
A) Poorer nations may see capital flight to even poorer nations. B) Poorer nations will become dependent upon multinational companies. C) Wealthy nations will tend to lose many jobs to outsourcing to poorer nations. D) all of the above
26) What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?
A) beliefs, practices, moral community B) practices, sacrifice, obligation C) sacrifice, obligation, repentance D) a moral community, repentance, communion
27) What are the two functions that education is said to have?
A) visible; manifest B) potential; latent C) manifest; latent D) hidden; latent
28) Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as ________.
A) telescoping B) multicultural representation C) mainstreaming D) gatekeeping
29) From a functionalist perspective, what is the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students?
A) required prerequisites B) social imperative C) manifest functions D) latent functions
30) One of the functions performed by schools is to promote a sense of national identity and stabilize the political system. This function is referred to as ________.
A) tracking B) social integration C) mainstreaming D) gatekeeping
31) What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?
A) to prove which religion is superior in doctrine and practice B) to verify or disprove the principles of specific faiths C) to study the role that religion plays in people's lives D) to evaluate the truth of a religious teaching
32) What is a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, resulting in an acceleration of growth during the final stages?
A) demographic equation B) implosion growth curve C) exponential growth curve D) demographic transition
33) What is the Malthus Theorem?
A) the idea that population grows geometrically and the food supply only increases arithmetically B) the belief that language influences culture C) a three-stage explanation of how populations increase, stabilize, and then decrease D) the belief that if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
34) The most significant predictor of whether a student will attend college is his/her ________.
A) personality B) family background C) test scores D) motivation
35) What is the process by which schools pass a society's core values from one generation to the next?
A) cultural transmission of values B) social integration of education C) social pluralism of culture D) multiculturalism of society
36) What did Marx believe religion did to social change?
A) increased it B) caused it C) prevented it D) neutral to it
37) A shift in the characteristics of culture and society over time is known as ________.
A) cultural tradition B) technology advancements C) social change D) social life
38) What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?
A) It provides emotional comfort. B) It is a means of social control. C) It is a means of adaptation. D) It is a means of social solidarity.
39) According to the concept environmental injustice, what two groups are affected the most by pollution?
A) the immigrants and minorities B) the poor and minorities C) the elderly and children D) none of the above
40) Poor children are more likely than the children of the rich to attend schools with poor resources.
T / F
42) Overall higher educational attainment by both males and females in a society is associated with lower birth rates.
T / F
43) The fact that approximately 70% of the world's inhabitants identify themselves with one of five major world religions demonstrates that religion is a very influential agent of socialization.
T / F
44) Although the state and federal governments finance and control education in part, the bulk of money and control for education comes from local communities.
T / F
45) A central sociological principle is that a nation's education system reflects its culture.
T / F
47) The second stage of the demographic transition is characterized by a population explosion due to higher birth rates and lower death rates.
T / F
48) The decreasing fertility rates some parts of world have led to potential negative problems related to the number of persons who can care for the aged and work in the work force.
T / F
49) Of the three demographic variables, the migration rate affects the global population increases and decreases the most.
T / F