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APES V11 Air Pollution
Terms in this set (32)
excess chemical or physical phenomena that can harm humans and ecosystems.
Chemical that has been added directly to the air by natural events or human activities and occurs in a harmful concentration.
Harmful chemical formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with normal air components or other air pollutants.
Carbon and oxygen compounds: carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas that forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials. Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless greenhouse gas that contributes heavily to global warming.
Sulfur oxides (SOx)
Mainly SO2 and SO3 which are common air pollutants that lead to the formation of sulfuric acid H2SO4
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) collectively. As a component in photochemical smog, they irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. They increase the risk of respiratory illnesses like asthma, bronchitis, and infections. React in the atmosphere to form HNO3.
Nitric Acid (HNO3)
Formed when NO2 reacts with water vapor in the air. It is a component of acid deposition that returns to the earth and can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes.
Colorless and highly reactive gas that is 1) part of photochemical smog 2) used to disinfect sewage waste, and 3) found in the stratosphere where it protects life by filtering out most harmful UV from the Sun.
Solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air for short to long periods. Also referred to as suspended particulate matter (SPM).
Type of air pollution consisting mostly of a mixture of 1) SOx, 2) suspended droplets of sulfuric acid formed from SOx, and 3) a variety of suspended solid particles (PM).
Complex mixture of air pollutants produced in the lower atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Especially harmful components include ozone, peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).
highly reactive carbon based compounds that exist as gases in the air
nitrogen based oxidizing chemicals found in photochemical smog.
compound that gives or donates H+
compound that takes or receives H+
measure of the H+ concentration of an aqueous solution
The falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth's surface. It includes acid rain, acid snow, and dry acid particles.
Substance that can react with hydrogen ions in a solution and thus hold the acidity or pH of a solution fairly constant. the carbonate anion CO32- is a good buffer
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Colorless gas. 60% to 90% of atmospheric SO2 is anthropogenic. Most comes from burning of sulfur-rich coal in power plants, steel industry, sulfur smelting, and refineries.
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Formed in the atmosphere from sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. As microscopic suspended droplets, it is the main component of acid deposition.
aka "thermal inversion"
Layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of less dense, warm air. This prevents upward-flowing air currents from developing. In a prolonged inversion, air pollution in the trapped layer may accumulate to harmful levels.
ODCs a.k.a. Ozone Depleting Chems.
Anthropogenic chemicals that travel to the stratosphere and destroy ozone by chemical reactions. Most importantly are halogenated compounds such as CFCs, HCFCs, HCl.
gaseous ozone (O3) in the stratosphere that protects life on earth by filtering out most harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun
Decrease in concentration of ozone (O3) in the stratosphere
compounds made of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. An example is Freon-12 (CCl2F2), which is
Cl as a catalyst
a catalyst makes chemical reactions go faster. Chlorine is released by CFC's and HCFC's which catalyzes the destruction of ozone (O3) to oxygen gas (O2).
a group of CFCs that were used in the US as coolants in refrigerators, ACs. Gaseous CFCs deplete the ozone layer when their chlorine atoms help destroy ozone molecules.
Naturally occurring radioactive gas found in some types of soil and rock. It can seep into homes and buildings sitting above such deposits. Long-term exposure can cause lung cancer, especially among smokers.
A naturally occurring solid that was once in the US to insulate buildings. It is now illegal to use in the US because it is a known carcinogen and has caused many cases of lung cancer.
a chemical used to make many things yet is a known carcinogen and often a problem in indoor air pollution
electrostatic precipitator & cyclone separator
devices that can remove PM from smokestacks.
a device that can remove PM and sulfur from smokestacks
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