59 terms

Counseling Midterm


Terms in this set (...)

Cognitive Behavior Therapy Creator
Albert Ellis
Cognitive Behavioral therapy
- where thinking is said to be the most frequent source of client's problems
-focuses on thinking and effects on behavior
-cognitive restructuring
-used most commonly with eating disorder population
Health Belief Model Constructs
perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers

2 newest ones: cues to action, self-efficacy
Health Belief Model
- found to be helpful with DM, HTN, high cholesterol, and high TGY
-purposed person will take action if:
perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, recognizes and responds to cue to action, and their confidence
social learning theory creator
Albert Bandura
Social Learning theory
emphasizes we learn by modeling and observing
-focuses on self efficacy
-Bobo doll experiment
- not a longitudinal study
- more effective when combine with rules and with reinforcement
Social Learning theory how to increase your confidence:
setting and achieving realistic goals
providing affirmations
keep self- monitoring records
reinforce for accomplished changes
What did James Prochaska develop?
Transtheoretical Model (TTM) or Stages of Change (SOC)
-believes people are at various points on the continuum
-strategies should be appropriate for their current stage and likely more them to the next stage
-can relapse at any point
TTM four social constructs
1. stages of change
2. process of change; how we change
3. decisional balance
4. situational self - efficacy
Stages of change
precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
Not intending to make changes within the next 6 months
-assesses values and beliefs
-raises awareness
-consciousness raising
-self -eval
-increased positive cognitions / feelings
intends to take action in next 30 days
- commit to a change, create a plan, make goals
-support self efficacy
has made changes in behavior for less than 6 mon
-teach knowledge and skills
-social support
maintenance / termination
change for more than 6 mons
then change for over 10 years
Decisional balance
Weighing the pros and cons
situational self efficacy
The confidence to succeed with a specific task
4 principals supporting motivational interviewing
resist the righting reflex
understand clients motivation
listen to client
empower client
Skill for resisting the righting reflex
roll with resistance, listen and discuss ambivalence
understand the clients motivation skill
listen to client skill
reflective listening
empower client skill
affirmation, reflect change talk
MI Microskills OARS
Open ended questions
1. announce you are about to summarize
2. summarize dicussion
3. invite client to add anything
4. ask open ended question and change topic
nondirective counseling creator
Carl Rogers
Nondirective Counseling Approach
focuses on relationship
-client -centered
-unconditional positive regard
-accurate empathy
-coined reflecting
- downfall doesn't set goals
Gestalt therapy creator
fritz perls
Gestalt therapy
emphasizes confirming problems
stresses personal responsibility
focuses on present, not past or future
-mostly uses role play
-goal is to evoke negative emotion, see how you react, help you cope
hierarchy of needs creator
Abraham Maslow
Maslow's Pyramid
(bottom) physiological needs, safety and security, social needs and affection, esteem and status, self-actualization (top)
TATER (sequences that lead to a behavior)
automatic thought
response and behavior
SOLER (nonverbal)
Lean in
Eye contact
SMART (goal setting)
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
ADIET (session steps)
Open questions
what and how
require the pt to have a longer answer
Closed questions
Questions that can usually be answered with yes or no.
-specific facts
Primary Questions
introduce new topics
-confirm pt understanding with previous topic, summarize, switch topic
Secondary questions
elicit further ( what makes you feel this way)
- probing
- unpacking questions
leading question
a question that implies that one answer would be better than another
-aren't you or don't you
-avoid with clients
Rather than focusing on a single nutrient or food, individuals should improve their total diet.
Only adults need to have their cholesterol checked. Children can't have high cholesterol
Most of the salt people consume is at the table.
11% from the table
70% packaged food
How much sodium in 1 tsp of Na?
2,300 mg
The American Heart Association recommends that adults accumulate _________ of physical activity weekly.
150 minutes
AHA recommends between ______ total kcal as fats from foods like fish, nuts, and vegetable oils
higher range than macronutrient
AHA recommends consuming ________ saturated fat?
less than 7% of energy
As long as I cut eggs our of my diet, I don't need to worry about my cholesterol.
most people serum cholesterol isn't affected by their diet
I can eat as much peanut butter as I want because its cholesterol free.
All beef should be avoided b/c it is too high in fat.
If I fry pork sausage until its brown, all of the fat is removed.
Saturated fat is found only in animal products.
palm oil / coconut oil
All pork is forbidden on low cholesterol diets.
How much soluble fiber do RDN recommend clients with high cholesterol consume daily?
10 -12 grams
min 5-10 grams
RDA 25-35
Foods with soluble fiber
broccoli, beans, apple, peach
How much cholesterol is in one egg?
186 mg
What is the Na AI for 19-50 y/o?
1500 mg
What is the UL for Na?
2300 mg
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
4700 mg