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56 terms

Chapter 9 Section 2: Photosynthesis

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What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO₂(g) + 6H₂0(g) ➔ C₆H₁₂O₆(s) + O₂(g)
(g) - gas
(s) - solid
➔ light and chlorophyll
The ____ of a plant is the major photosynthesis organ. Its flat surface enables the maximum of _____ to be captured.
leaf,light
Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes capture about _% of the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis.
1%
A chloroplast has an _____ membrane and an _____ membrane.
outer, inner
The space inside the inner membrane is the ______
stroma
Within the stroma is the ....
thylakoid membrane
thylakoid membrane
Flat, disc-like sacs which contain molecules that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.
The first stage of photosynthesis begins when light waves hit the __________
thylakoids
What is electromagnetic radiation?
Energy that can travel through empty space in the form of waves
Light is a form of
electromagnetic radiation
Light travels from the source (sun) as
waves of energy
The first phase of photosynthesis involves
the trapping of light
pigment
a substance that absorbs certain wavelengths (colors) of light and commonly reflects all of the others
In plants, light energy is harvested by ________ that are located in the _________ membrane of chloroplasts
pigments, thylakoid
chlorophyll
a green pigment in the chloroplasts that absorbs light energy to start photosynthesis
What kind of light does chlorophyll absorb and reflect?
Absorbs blue and red light
Reflects yellow and green light, which makes plants appear green
What are the two types of chlorophyll?
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
Plants also have pigments called __________
carotenoids
What do carotenoids absorb and reflect?
Absorb blue and green light
Reflect yellow, orange, and red light
When chlorophyll fades away in the fall, the colors of ___________ are exposed
carotenoids
Carotenoids aid photosynthesis by
allowing plants to absorb additional light energy
When light hits a thylakoid, energy is absorbed by
pigment molecules
Each wavelength has a characteristic amount of
energy
photon
a packet of energy which is a certain amount
Short wavelengths =
high energy and high frequency
Long wavelengths =
low energy and low frequency
frequency
number of waves that pass a given point in a specific amount of time. Freqemcy = Hz (hertz)
Color is determined by the
wavelength
Sunlight is a
mixture of colors
Red light has ___ energy, while violet light has ____ energy. (ROYGBIV)
low, high
When sunlight strikes the leaf, the energy of the lightwaves is absorbed by
chlorophyll
Different pigments absorb different ___________
wavelengths
Wavelengths not absorbed is
reflected
Photosynthetic pigments are located in the
chloroplast
Each chloroplast contains stacks of membrane called
thylakoids
Surrounding the thylakoids is a fluid called
stroma
During photosynthesis, one electron transport chain provides energy to make ___, while the other provides energy to make _____
ATP, NADPH
What are the 2 major reactions in photosynthesis?
light reaction and dark reaction
What is the dark reaction also called?
Carbon fixation reaction or Calvin Cycle
2nd Law of Thermodynamics states no energy conversion is ___% efficient
100
Autotroph absorbs __% of radiant energy that reaches it from the sun
20
Only _% of the radiant energy that strikes the leaf can be stored in ___
8, ATP
What are three environmental factors that affect photosynthesis?
light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature
The distance between crest and trophs is
wavelength
cellular respiration
cells make the carbon in glucose into stable CO₂ molecules and produce energy for ATP
ATP goes where during the light reaction?
electron transport chain
Where is the electron transport chain?
inner membrane of mitochondria
What process is the mitochondria part of?
respiration
What splits simultaneously as electrons are being energized? (in electron transport chains)
H₂O
CO₂ comes in where from the leaf in the dark reaction then combines with what?
stoma/stomata, RUDP (5C compound)
After CO₂ combines with RUDP to make a 6C compound what happens?
it splits apart and forms two 3C compounds (PGA)
What is made after PGA splits apart and adds 6 ATP and 6 NADPH?
PGAL
How many ATP is used to power dark reaction?
3 ATP used, 6 ATP made
What is RUDP?
5C compound
What is PGA?
3C compound from when the 6C compound splits
What is PGAL?
3C compound with 6 ATP and 6 NADPH added to it