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What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO₂(g) + 6H₂0(g) ➔ C₆H₁₂O₆(s) + O₂(g)
(g) - gas
(s) - solid
➔ light and chlorophyll

The ____ of a plant is the major photosynthesis organ. Its flat surface enables the maximum of _____ to be captured.


Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes capture about _% of the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis.


A chloroplast has an _____ membrane and an _____ membrane.

outer, inner

The space inside the inner membrane is the ______


Within the stroma is the ....

thylakoid membrane

thylakoid membrane

Flat, disc-like sacs which contain molecules that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.

The first stage of photosynthesis begins when light waves hit the __________


What is electromagnetic radiation?

Energy that can travel through empty space in the form of waves

Light is a form of

electromagnetic radiation

Light travels from the source (sun) as

waves of energy

The first phase of photosynthesis involves

the trapping of light


a substance that absorbs certain wavelengths (colors) of light and commonly reflects all of the others

In plants, light energy is harvested by ________ that are located in the _________ membrane of chloroplasts

pigments, thylakoid


a green pigment in the chloroplasts that absorbs light energy to start photosynthesis

What kind of light does chlorophyll absorb and reflect?

Absorbs blue and red light
Reflects yellow and green light, which makes plants appear green

What are the two types of chlorophyll?

chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b

Plants also have pigments called __________


What do carotenoids absorb and reflect?

Absorb blue and green light
Reflect yellow, orange, and red light

When chlorophyll fades away in the fall, the colors of ___________ are exposed


Carotenoids aid photosynthesis by

allowing plants to absorb additional light energy

When light hits a thylakoid, energy is absorbed by

pigment molecules

Each wavelength has a characteristic amount of



a packet of energy which is a certain amount

Short wavelengths =

high energy and high frequency

Long wavelengths =

low energy and low frequency


number of waves that pass a given point in a specific amount of time. Freqemcy = Hz (hertz)

Color is determined by the


Sunlight is a

mixture of colors

Red light has ___ energy, while violet light has ____ energy. (ROYGBIV)

low, high

When sunlight strikes the leaf, the energy of the lightwaves is absorbed by


Different pigments absorb different ___________


Wavelengths not absorbed is


Photosynthetic pigments are located in the


Each chloroplast contains stacks of membrane called


Surrounding the thylakoids is a fluid called


During photosynthesis, one electron transport chain provides energy to make ___, while the other provides energy to make _____


What are the 2 major reactions in photosynthesis?

light reaction and dark reaction

What is the dark reaction also called?

Carbon fixation reaction or Calvin Cycle

2nd Law of Thermodynamics states no energy conversion is ___% efficient


Autotroph absorbs __% of radiant energy that reaches it from the sun


Only _% of the radiant energy that strikes the leaf can be stored in ___

8, ATP

What are three environmental factors that affect photosynthesis?

light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature

The distance between crest and trophs is


cellular respiration

cells make the carbon in glucose into stable CO₂ molecules and produce energy for ATP

ATP goes where during the light reaction?

electron transport chain

Where is the electron transport chain?

inner membrane of mitochondria

What process is the mitochondria part of?


What splits simultaneously as electrons are being energized? (in electron transport chains)


CO₂ comes in where from the leaf in the dark reaction then combines with what?

stoma/stomata, RUDP (5C compound)

After CO₂ combines with RUDP to make a 6C compound what happens?

it splits apart and forms two 3C compounds (PGA)

What is made after PGA splits apart and adds 6 ATP and 6 NADPH?


How many ATP is used to power dark reaction?

3 ATP used, 6 ATP made

What is RUDP?

5C compound

What is PGA?

3C compound from when the 6C compound splits

What is PGAL?

3C compound with 6 ATP and 6 NADPH added to it

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