Bacterial Pathogens-Spore Forming Gram Positive Bacilli

Bacillus anthracis-produces an exotoxin
Transmission-Inhalation of spores or through cuts in the skin from animal product or soil, contaminated meat
Symptoms-Skin: papule that ruptures and becomes necrotic "eschar", Pulmonary: exotoxin causes capillary thrombosis, cardiovascular shock, and rapid death, Digestive: similar to pulmonary
Diagnosis-Serological blood test
Treatment and Prevention-Vaccine available, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin; burning of infected animal carcasses
Clostridium botulinum-produces an exotoxin called botulin
Transmission-Ingestion of poorly preserved food, can enter through skin
Symptoms-Travels from intestine to CNS through lymph and circulatory systems causing double vision, swallowing difficulty, dizziness, muscular paralysis, respiratory comprimise; "floppy baby syndrome" infected infants become flaccid
Diagnosis-Testing for botulin
Treatment and Prevention-No vaccine, antitoxin, penicillin; properly store food
Clostridium dificile-produces enterotoxins
Transmission-Part of natural flora that can overgrow due to broad spectrum antibiotics
Symptoms-toxin causes necrosis of intestinal wall, diarrhea, cramps, fever, possibly fatal if not treated
Diagnosis-Cytotoxin assay
Treatment and Prevention-No vaccine, vancomycin, metronidazole, stop broad spectrum antibiotics, replace fluids, replace normal flora
Gas Gangrene(myonecrosis)-
Clostridium perfinges-produces toxins, alpha toxin, collagenase, hyaluronidase, DNase
Transmission-Presence of severe injuries with a lack of oxygen
Symptoms-Pain, edema, blood, tissue necrosis localized or widespread
Diagnosis-Clinical observation
Treatment and Prevention-No vaccine, cephalosporin, removal of damaged tissue, amputation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy; rigorous cleaning of wounds
Tetanus(Lock Jaw)-
Clostridium tetani-produces a neurotoxin called tetanospasmin
Transmission-Enters skin through accidental puncture wounds or injuries that are poorly supplied with blood
Symptoms-Toxin spreads to CNS and blocks it, muscles contract uncontrollably, jaw clenching, back arching, strange looking smile, can cause death if not treated quickly
Diagnosis-Clinical observation
Treatment and Prevention-Vaccine available, penicillin, tetracyline, antitoxins, cleansing or removal of infected tissues; vaccination