53 terms

Personal Relationships

personal relationship
voluntary commitment between irreplaceable individuals
influences on personal relationships
rules, relationship dialectics, and surrounding contexts
social relationship
a relationship in which participants interact according to general social rules
the decision to remain with a relationship
an intense feeling based on the rewards of involvement with another person
what we put into a relationship that we could not retrieve if the relationship were to end
a factor in all relationships that guides how partners communicate and interpret each other's communication
relationship dialectics
opposing and continuous tensions that are normal in all close relationships
desires to be separate, on the one hand, and be connected, on the other
opposition of the desire for familiar routines and the desire for novelty
the desire to share everything in tension with the desire for privacy
ways to deal with dialectic tensions
neutralization, separation, segmentation and reframing
negotiation of a balance between the opposing dialectical forces
addresses one need and ignores the other
is when each pole gets its certain sphere, issue, activity or time
a complex strategy that redefines apparently contradictory needs as not really in opposition
matching hypothesis
predicts people will seek relationships with others who closely match their own values, attitudes, social background and physical attractiveness
five phases of relationship deterioration
intrapsychic processes, dyadic processes, social support processes, grave dressing processes and resurrection processes
intrapsychic processes
partners brood about problems and dissatisfactions with the other partner
dyadic processes
first involve the breakdown of partner patterns, understanding and rules; may involve conflict and evading confrontation of difficulties
social support processes
relationship troubles are aired with others while seeking support and assistance
grave dressing processes
partners decide how to explain their problems to others and make sense of what the relationship meant, why it failed, and how it affected us
resurrection processes
involve each ex-partner moving on without the other
a special kind of collaborative vitality that enhances the efforts, talents and strengths of individual members
standard agenda for problem solving
- define the problem
- analyze information relevant to the problem
- generate criteria to assess solutions
- identify possible solutions
- select the best solution
- implement the solution
- monitor the effectiveness of the solution
organizational culture
ways of thinking, acting, and understanding work that are shared by members of an organization and reflect an organization's identity
hierarchical language
vocabularies that distinguish levels of status
masculine language
language more related to men's traditional interests and experiences than to women's
dramatic, planned sets of activities that bring together aspects of cultural ideology in a single event (marriage, graduation, etc)
forms of communication that occur regularly and are perceived as familiar and routine parts of organizational life that enhance particular values or role definitions
Formal Communication Networks
Communication that follows the lines on the organizational chart
Informal Communication Networks
communication outside the lines on the organizational chart; often referred to as "the grape vine"
when listeners believe in a speaker and trust what the speaker says
steps to planning public speeches
- analyze the audience, and select a topic
- define the speaking purpose-what you hope to accomplish
- develop the thesis statement
speech introduction functions
- gain listener's attention
- give them a reason to listen
- establish the credibility of the speaker
- state the thesis
speech conclusion functions
- summarizes the main ideas of the speech
- leaves listeners with a memorable final idea
impromptu delivery
speeches which involve little or no preparation
extemporaneous delivery
speeches involving substantial preparation and practice, stopping short of memorization, relying on notes
manuscript delivery
speeches involving presenting from a complete, written manuscript
memorized delivery
speeches which are completely memorized, presented without relying on written text or notes
tribal epoch
oral tradition reigned
literate epoch
invention of the phonetic alphabet, written communication emerges
print epoch
gutenberg invented the printing press (1400s), made it possible to print thousands of the same exact book at moderately cost
electronic epoch
telegraph was forerunner, revived oral tradition, made hearing and touch preeminent
global village
has been created by electronic media by making increased access to information possible
Hypodermic Needle Theory
media are powerful forces that are injected directly into vulnerable, passive audiences
uses and gratification theory
we choose to attend mass communication to gratify ourselves, we select media we think will give us something we want or value
agenda setting
media's ability to select and call to the public's attention, and offer frames or ways of seeing, those phenomena they select
the people and groups that decide which message pass through the gates that control information flow to reach consumers
cultivation theory
claims that television cultivates, or promotes, a worldview that is inaccurate but that viewers may assume reflects real life
cultural studies theories
focus on connections between mass communication popular culture, including history, politics, and economics
types of cultural studies
textual analysis, audience studies and political economy studies
steps to media literacy
- realistically assess media's influence
- become aware of patterns in media
- actively interrogate media messages
- expose yourself to multiple sources
- focus on your motivations for engaging media