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personal relationship

voluntary commitment between irreplaceable individuals

influences on personal relationships

rules, relationship dialectics, and surrounding contexts

social relationship

a relationship in which participants interact according to general social rules


the decision to remain with a relationship


an intense feeling based on the rewards of involvement with another person


what we put into a relationship that we could not retrieve if the relationship were to end


a factor in all relationships that guides how partners communicate and interpret each other's communication

relationship dialectics

opposing and continuous tensions that are normal in all close relationships


desires to be separate, on the one hand, and be connected, on the other


opposition of the desire for familiar routines and the desire for novelty


the desire to share everything in tension with the desire for privacy

ways to deal with dialectic tensions

neutralization, separation, segmentation and reframing


negotiation of a balance between the opposing dialectical forces


addresses one need and ignores the other


is when each pole gets its certain sphere, issue, activity or time


a complex strategy that redefines apparently contradictory needs as not really in opposition

matching hypothesis

predicts people will seek relationships with others who closely match their own values, attitudes, social background and physical attractiveness

five phases of relationship deterioration

intrapsychic processes, dyadic processes, social support processes, grave dressing processes and resurrection processes

intrapsychic processes

partners brood about problems and dissatisfactions with the other partner

dyadic processes

first involve the breakdown of partner patterns, understanding and rules; may involve conflict and evading confrontation of difficulties

social support processes

relationship troubles are aired with others while seeking support and assistance

grave dressing processes

partners decide how to explain their problems to others and make sense of what the relationship meant, why it failed, and how it affected us

resurrection processes

involve each ex-partner moving on without the other


a special kind of collaborative vitality that enhances the efforts, talents and strengths of individual members

standard agenda for problem solving

- define the problem
- analyze information relevant to the problem
- generate criteria to assess solutions
- identify possible solutions
- select the best solution
- implement the solution
- monitor the effectiveness of the solution

organizational culture

ways of thinking, acting, and understanding work that are shared by members of an organization and reflect an organization's identity

hierarchical language

vocabularies that distinguish levels of status

masculine language

language more related to men's traditional interests and experiences than to women's


dramatic, planned sets of activities that bring together aspects of cultural ideology in a single event (marriage, graduation, etc)


forms of communication that occur regularly and are perceived as familiar and routine parts of organizational life that enhance particular values or role definitions

Formal Communication Networks

Communication that follows the lines on the organizational chart

Informal Communication Networks

communication outside the lines on the organizational chart; often referred to as "the grape vine"


when listeners believe in a speaker and trust what the speaker says

steps to planning public speeches

- analyze the audience, and select a topic
- define the speaking purpose-what you hope to accomplish
- develop the thesis statement

speech introduction functions

- gain listener's attention
- give them a reason to listen
- establish the credibility of the speaker
- state the thesis

speech conclusion functions

- summarizes the main ideas of the speech
- leaves listeners with a memorable final idea

impromptu delivery

speeches which involve little or no preparation

extemporaneous delivery

speeches involving substantial preparation and practice, stopping short of memorization, relying on notes

manuscript delivery

speeches involving presenting from a complete, written manuscript

memorized delivery

speeches which are completely memorized, presented without relying on written text or notes

tribal epoch

oral tradition reigned

literate epoch

invention of the phonetic alphabet, written communication emerges

print epoch

gutenberg invented the printing press (1400s), made it possible to print thousands of the same exact book at moderately cost

electronic epoch

telegraph was forerunner, revived oral tradition, made hearing and touch preeminent

global village

has been created by electronic media by making increased access to information possible

Hypodermic Needle Theory

media are powerful forces that are injected directly into vulnerable, passive audiences

uses and gratification theory

we choose to attend mass communication to gratify ourselves, we select media we think will give us something we want or value

agenda setting

media's ability to select and call to the public's attention, and offer frames or ways of seeing, those phenomena they select


the people and groups that decide which message pass through the gates that control information flow to reach consumers

cultivation theory

claims that television cultivates, or promotes, a worldview that is inaccurate but that viewers may assume reflects real life

cultural studies theories

focus on connections between mass communication popular culture, including history, politics, and economics

types of cultural studies

textual analysis, audience studies and political economy studies

steps to media literacy

- realistically assess media's influence
- become aware of patterns in media
- actively interrogate media messages
- expose yourself to multiple sources
- focus on your motivations for engaging media

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