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Parietal Bones

Create the greater part of the cranium, they form the superior portion of the sides and back of the cranium.
They articulate with the Temporal Bones, Occipital Bone, and Frontal Bones

Temporal Bones

Create the lower portion of the sides and base of the cranium. They are located inferior to the Parietal Bones, and inferior to the Occipital Bone


It is the vertical portion of the Temporal Bone. Scale like, thin, and translucent

Zygomatic Arch

It projects from the lower part of the Squama. It is long, thin, and arched. It is used to establish the widest part of the FACE and is used to loacte the correct position of the reconstructed ear. This divides the EAR into equal halves

External Auditory Meatus

This is the opening of the Ear Passage. The front border of the EAR is in alignment with this opening. Is the primary structure for the accurate location and position of a reconstructed ear.

Mandibular Fossa

A small oval depression on the under surface of the Temporal Bone. Located posterior to the Zygomatic Arch. The Condyle of the lower jaw fits into this bone.
It is the hinge for the lower jaw

Mastoid Process

This bone creates the posterior portion of the bone. Physiognomically, it is situated under the Ear Lobe.

Frontal Bone

Forms both the forehead and the anterior portion of the roof of the skull. The surface of the bone abruptly changes direction at the Frontal Eminence.
The vertical portion of the forehead extends from the eye sockets to the Frontal Eminences. The horizontal portion or Crown, which is located above the Frontal Eminences ascends superiorly until it reaches the Parietal Bones.

Frontal Bone Eminences

The bones are rounded, un margined prominences at the upper part of the forehead. They are found on each side of the forehead.
They vary in size and prominence. They may be indistinct and asymmetrical.

Supraorbital Margins

Forms the upper rim of the eye socket. They lye inferior to the level of Supercillary Arches

Supercilary Arches

They lie above the medial ends of the eyebrows. They are on the lower portion of the forehead.


The small smooth elevation which lies between the Superciliary Arches.

Foramen Magnum

Has a large opening which allows entry of the Spinal Cord. In Osteology, the word refers to an opening or a hole in a bone.

Occipital Protuberence

A small jutting eminence which may be felt through the scalp. It may serve as a landmark for finding the Foramen Magnum

Spenoid Bone

Described as the bat shaped bone.

Greater Wing of Sphenoid Bone
Lesser Wing, and Sella Turcica

Looks like a wing or wings but the lesser wing is described by some Anatomists as a pair of horns.
It helps make up the floor of the Cranial cavity, the back of the Eye Sockets, and a part of the Temple Area.
Is a landmark of the Spenoid Bone and it holds or cradles the Pituitary Gland

Ethmoid Bone

A bone in the skull that separated the nasal cavity form the brain. It is located at the roof of the Nose between the two orbits.
Bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. This bone is one of the bones that makes up the orbit of the eye. It is very irregular in shape.

Crista Galli

The triangular midline process of the Ethmoid Bone extending upward from the Cribriform Plate and giving attachment to the Falx Celebri

Cribriform Plate

The flat superior bone of the ethmoid bone and is part of the floor of the Cranial Cavity. The Plate has many small holes.

Perpendicular Plate

A thin, flat Plate of bone which extends down into the Nasal Cavity on the midline. The Plate makes up part of the Septum.

Squamosal Suture

Joins each Parietal Bone with corresponding Temporal Bone

Lambdoidal Suture

Joins each Parietal Bone with the Occipital Bone

Coronal Suture

Joins the Frontal Bone with each Parietal Bone

Sagittal Suture

Joins the Two Parietal Bones

Occipital Bone

Lowest part of the back and base of the Skull and it curves under the Skull and becomes a cradle for the Brain

Parietal Eminences

Smooth Bones which are smooth and convex in curvature. Each is "marked" near its center by an eminence.
The Widest part of the Cranium is measured between these eminences.
They are located a short distance above the posterior border of the ear. Though they are rather indistinct, they are never the less an important landmark.


Latin for Plowshare. The bone is located on the midline in the base of the nasal cavity. Along with the Perpendicular Plate of the Ethmoid Bone, it forms the Nasal Septum which is the wall that divides the Nasal Cavity into right and left portions

Palatine Bones

2 small bones which help the posterior part of the roof of the mouth form. It is from there, these bones which we get the commonly used word, "Palate", which refers to the roof of the mouth.

Inferior Nasal Conchae

A bony ridge or ledge on the lateral wall of the Nasal Cavity. Conch means shell. The wall is one of the Turbinates in the Nose. Extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the Nasal Cavity.

Nasal Bone

Articulates directly inferior to the Glabella. Viewed in profile, they "dip" posteriorly below the Glabella. Together they create a dome over the superior part of the Nasal cavity

Lacrimal Bones

Comes from the word, "tears". The smallest and most fragile bone on the face and it is situated at the front part of the Medial wall of the Eye Socket/ORbit.

Zygomatic Arch

Cheek Bone.
Projects from the lower part of the Squama. It is long, thin, and ARCHED. Used to establish the widest part of the face and to locate the correct position of the reconstructed ear, It as well divides the ear into equal halves.

Zygomatic Co-Frontal Process

This forms the lateral and lower rim of the Eye Socket

Zygomatic Bones

The cheekbone.
Its curvature is convex. It exists in both the frontal and lateral planes of the face. It creates the prominence of the cheek and forms major portions of the inferior and lateral margins of the EYe Socket. Physiognomically, the greatest width of the anterior plane of the face is measured between the centers of the two bones.

Nasal Spine

Where the two bones join at the inferior portion of the Nasal cavity. They send out small sharp spurs

Alveolar Process of the Maxilla

The thickest and most spongy part of the Maxilla. They are the sockets for the Teeth.


Is formed by two large bones of the upper jaw. Which articulate at the medial line below the Nasal Cavity

Incisive Fossa

Between the Mental Eminence and the incisor teeth, the surface recedes. It always indicates a depression or Concave Recession
The bone is a recession that is most readily seen from the profile. Is responsible for the recession of the central plane of the lower lip

Mental Eminence

A marked faint verticle ridge on the midline on the body of the Mandible
This divides and encloses the triangular landmark called the Mental Eminence

Alveolar Process

Has sixteen sockets for the teeth. The inferior teeth are set slightly "within" those of the upper jaw to offend a satisfactory "bite".
Physiognomically, the position of the lower jaw effects the surface contour of the mouth. The lower lip should be slightly posterior to the upper lip.
In normal repose, the upper and lower teeth are not tightly contacted. There is a slight internal between them.
Tight contact in posing the teeth destroys appearance of relaxation. Tight facial muscles will change the form of the cheeks.

Condyle of the Ramus

The posterior process which rests in the Temporal Bone.

Coronid Process

Thin, triangular eminence, which is flattened from side to side. Tests in the socket of the Temporal Bone


The two perendicular structures on each side of the Mandible

Angle of the Jaw

The Body of the Mandible and each Ramus unite at nearly right angles. At this juncture we can locate this angle.
Is chiefly responsible for the geometric form of the head when viewed from the front.

Body of the Mandible

Curved in the form of a Horseshoe and has three important structures


The lower jaw; composed of a curved horizontal structure, two perpendicular structures on either side, which are quadrilateral in shape. Each called the Ramus of the Mandible

#'s of Bones of the Skull

22 Bones in the Skull
8 Pairs (Two of each for a total of 16)
6 Single Bones

#'s of Bones of the Face

6 Pairs (2 of each, total of 12)
2 Single Bones

#'s of Bones of the Cranium

2 in Pairs (Total of 4)
4 Single Bones

Occipito Frontalis or Epicranius

A very large muscle which covers the top and sides of the skull. Referred to as the Epicranius
Composed of two broad bellies which are connected by the Galea Apon Eurotica or Epicranial Aponeurosis

Auricularis - Anterior, Superior, Posterior

Three thin muscles in the region of the ear (Anterior, Superior, and Posterior) Have more effect on the movement of the Scalp than of the ear. They have no influence on surface form.


A broad, radiating muscle shaped like a fan. It is the strongest of the chewing muscles. It retrieves the low jaw and brings the teeth together. Has no effect on the surface form.


Receives its name from its action, chewing. It is located on the side of the face. When contracted, it raises the lower jaw. Anterior border is responsible for division of the lateral surface of the cheek.

Medial and Lateral Pterygoideus

Both muscles originate from the processes of the Squamoid Bone. They are deeper muscles which permit the side to side movement of the lower jaw as in the grinding of food. They have no influence on surface form.

Orbicularis Oculi

Orbicularis means "Sphincter". Oculi means "Eye". The Broad thin sphincter muscle that surrounds the eye


The frowning muscle. It is small, narrow and pyramidal in shape; it is located at the medial end of the Eyebrow. Originates near the root of the nose where it is covered by the Frontalis and Orbicular Oculi. It extends upward and laterally to the deep skin surface at the middle of the Supraorbital Margin.

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

The elevator of the upper eyelid. Contraction raises the upper eyelid. It originates deep in the eyesocket. It is long, thin, flat and triangular in shape. When it is impossible to close the upper eyelid, this muscle may be severed.


A long, thin slip of muscle which extends vertically from the lower part of the nasal bone to the skin of the lower part of the forehead. The fibers merge with those of the Frontalis.


Muscle of the lower part of the nose
Serves to elevate, dilate, depress and contract the Nostrils. Muscle fibers run horizontally (across) the nose
As opposed to the Procerus Muscles which run vertically up the the nose.

Orbicularis Oris

Encircles the mouth. It is a large sphincter muscle which extends form the base of the nose to the lower jaw and both cheeks.

Quadratus Labii Superioris

A group of three muscles which act independently or in unison
Broad origin, extending along the entire lower margin of the Eye socket

Levator Labii Superioris Alaque Nasi

The common elevator of the upper lip and wing of the nose is a long narrow slip running beside the nose

Levator Labii Superioris

The intermediate head is lateral to the common elevator and raises the upper lip

Zygomaticus Minor

The lateral head arises from the anterior part of the cheek bone and moves obliquely downward and medial ward as a narrow slip, inserting the upper lip at the angle of the mouth

Zygomaticus Major

Lateral to the Quadratus; it descends obliquely from the posterior portion of the cheekbone to the angle of the mouth. It draws the angle of the mouth upward and backward. "The Laughing Muscle". Creates the Prominence of the Nasolabial Fold

Levator Anguli Oris

The elevator of the angle of the mouth is located in the region of the canine tooth; it is a small muscle originating from the canine fossa and inserts into the angle of the mouth where its fibers intermingle with those of other muscles


The trumpeters muscle. Moves mouth side to side. A quadrilateral muscle in the soft area of the cheek. Principle muscle of the cheek and the lateral wall of the mouth


A narrow superficial muscle which runs across the cheek. Originates in the fascia over the masseter muscle. Antagonistic to the Buccinator. Creates a False Smile

Depressor Anguli Oris

Three sided muscle
Approaches the mouth from below
When contracted it depresses the angle of the mouth
Contributes to the prominence of the Angulus Oris Eminence

Depressor Labii Inferioris aka Quadratus

Approaches the lower lip from below
When contracted, it pulls the lower lip downward and a little to the side
Changes the form of the line of closure of the mouth
The Angulus Oris Sulcus becomes oblique in form


Wrinkles the chin
Raises and protrudes the lower lip
Located on the prominence of the two Depressor Labii Inferioris Muscles
Inserts into the skin of the chin


Broad, Flat & Superficial Muscle
It arises from the fascia covering the large muscles in the region of the collar bone, ribs, and shoulders
The Platysma softens the contour of the neck
It is responsible for the transverse wrinkles of the neck


A thick muscle, which passes obliquely across the side of the neck
Together these muscles are used to measure the widest part of the neck
The muscle arises at two points, the sternum and the clavicle, very close to the midline


A double bellied muscle which lies below the body of the mandible
The anterior belly of the two muscle is responsible for one form of the cords of the neck

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