History Review: Medieval World
Terms in this set (44)
a split; occured between the Western and Eastern Churches in 1054- it is now Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic with each side not recognizing the other as Christain.
Fuedalism Pyramid of Power
pope and church at top
king/monarch at the second level
nobles on third level
vassals/knights are fourth level
merchants/farmers/craftsmen -level 5
serfs and peasants on the bottom
cultivated land and own small plots of land; they were not free but were not slaves; sometimes they couldnt leave their land without permission from their lords.
Geographical Advantages of Byzantine
major trade route (Silk Road)
control of Black Sea --> Aegean Sea
natural defense (water on three sides)
easy access to Mediterranean Sea
a system of persons or things ranked one above the other
a political system:
those who fight
those who pray
those who work
political and social order in Medieval Europe, involved a hierarchy of lords and vassals who controlled political and military affairs.
an economic system: Manors
placed an imperial province under the control of a general; this system enabled Byzantine forces to mobilize quickly and resist further Islamic advances and ungirded the political and social order.
Daily Medieval Life
not very pleasant, many served as serfs and poor farmers during the "dark ages"
5 Pillars of Islam
profession of Faith
prayer 5 times a day
fasting during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca
God in Arabic
Crusades and Reasons for Crusades
series of holy wars fighting for control of Jerusalem and Palestine because each place had something important to each religion.
Islamic Holy Law, offered detailed guidance on proper behavior
struggle; against non-belief and ignorance to spread the word of Islam or against combat on evil and vice. Pilgrimage
in Saudi Arabia; Muhammad's home; Ka'bah is here
pilgrimage in the Five pillars of Islam; making at least one pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life
community of the faithful; community of Muhammad's followers
migration; Muhammad's move to Medina marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar
large black rock considered to be the dwelling of a large deity; Housed in a large cube-shaped building drew all-over worshippers and brought wealth; known to give food and water to pilgrims who visited it
a tradition that has several sayings attributed to Muhammad and accounts of prophets deeds
written versions of Muhammad's revelations (Holy Book of Islam); written down by devout Muslims
land given from the King to Lords
emperor ruled as a secular lord but also intervened in religious affairs
Greens and Blues
racing fans who frequently fought in streets and sought to influence imperial officials to favor one group over the other.
Unified in the Nika Revolt
Massive Christian Church constructed by Justinian and later converted into a Mosque. Had beautiful colors and paintings along the walls.
codification of Roman Law, a systematic review of Roman Law that was more thorough than any that had taken place before. served as a source of legal inspiration.
long-lasting empire centered at Constantinople; it grew out out of the end of the Roman Empire; carried the legacy of Roman greatness; and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; its peaks was during Justinian's Reign
emperor of Byzantium during 527-565; "The sleepless emperor; influenced the development of the Byzantine empire; disciplined, strong-willed and intelligent; lavished resources on the capital; created the Hagia Sophia; he thoroughly remade the city with constructing new buildings.
wife to Justinian- empress of Byzantine; she started as a prostitute; She gave ideas to her husband on political, diplomatic and theological issues; she was worthy of the throne and very powerful.
brilliant general who was sent on missions to reestablish Roman authority throughout the Mediterranean.
made Byzantine a Christian empire; Roman emperor who moved the Roman capital to Byzantine and changed the name to Constantinople; set new precedent by combining power of emperor and Christianity.
grandson of Charles Martel; ruled the Franks; temporarily reestablished imperial rule; intelligent with lots of energy; maintained diplomatic relations with the Byzantine Empire; conqueror who invaded the Roman Empire; instituted a new group of imperial officers; built an imperial state.
strong military and political leader; under his rule the Franks grew and became powerful; led a campaign that wiped out the last of the Roman authority in Gual, he had transformed the franks; converted them to Christianity.
leader of the Franks- excellent military leader; "Charles the Hammer"; not a king but a deputy- convinced Muslims to stop trying to take over the West.
influence political, social, and cultural development of Western Europe; society grew agricultural resources; lived in northern France and Germany; helped Roman Christianity and formed an alliance with the western Christian Church.
not fully slave but not fully free; semi-free individuals who owed obligations to the lords whose lands they cultivated.
not slaves but not entirely free; worked for lords to preserve their land; owned small plots of land.
took responsibility for maintaining order in their areas; collected rents, mobilized armed forces, decided legal disputes and intervened in affairs. their workers devoted their time and energy working for them.
provide protection and food and shelter and money in return for homage, military service, farming, food and fiefs and serfs; feudal tenant
military soldiers who protect, give military service and homage while in return they get money, food and shelter
fourth level of pyramid; did the regular jobs.
father of islam; islamic prophet of God; receives vision calling him to warn people of Judgment day; born in Mecca.
a tribe in Mecca who takes care of the Ka'bah
Pope Urban II
calls for people and initiates the crusades; starts 1st crusade