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43 terms

Chapter 16

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PERICARDIUM
Sling-like structure that supports the heart.

The epicardium is part of this structure.
CORONARY ARTERIES
Delivers oxygenated blood to the myocardium.

Also called the "window maker"
ENDOCARDIUM
Smooth, shiny, innermost lining of the heart.
RIGHT ATRIUM
Chamber that receives unoxygenated blood from the venae cavae.
RIGHT VENTRICLE
Chamber that pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
GREAT VESSELS
Term that includes the venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins and aorta.
VENTRICLES
Primary pumping chambers of the heart.
LEFT ATRIUM
Chamber that receives oxygenated blood from lungs through four pulmonary veins.
EPICARDIUM
Outernost layer of the heart.
LEFT VENTRICLE
Chamber that pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation.

The myocardium is the thickest in this chamber.

Hardest working chamber.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Death of the heart muscle caused by occlussion of a coronary artery.
ATRIA
Receiving chambers of the heart.
CORONARY VEINS
Drains unoxygenated blood from the myocardium.
ANGINA PECTORIS
Chest pain usually caused by impaired flow of blood through the coronary arteries.
PRECORDIUM
Area on the anterior chest that overlies the heart and great vessels.
MYOCARDIUM
Layer of the heart that contains the contractile proteins, actin and mysoin.
BASE
Upper flat portion of the heart that is located at the level of the second rib.
PERICARDIAL CAVITY
Collection of fluid or blood in this space causes an external compression of the heart called (cardiac tamponade)
CARDIOLOGY
The study of the heart.
PULMONIC VALVE
Semilunar valve through which blood leaves the right ventricle.

Valve that prevents the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery.

Exit valve that sees only unoxygenated blood.
TRICUSPID VALVE
Atrioventricular valve on the right side of the heart.

Entrance valve that sees only unoxygenated blood.
BICUSPID VALVE
Called the Mitral valve.

Entrance valve that sees only oxygenated blood.

Valve that prevents the backflow of blood from the left ventricle.

Atrioventricular valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
INCOMPETENT VALVE
Leaky valve that allows the backflow of blood.
S1
The first heart sound (lubb)

Heart sound created by the closure of the AV valves to the ventricular walls.

Heart sound created by the closure of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular relaxation.
AORTIC VALVE
Exit valve that only sees oxygenated blood.

Valve that prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.

Semilunar valve through which blood leaves the left ventricle.
CHORDAE TENDINEAE
Tough bands that attach the AV valves to the ventricular walls.
VALVULAR STENOSIS
Refers to the narrowing of a valve.
GALLOP RHYTHM
Extra heart sounds (S3,S4) that sound like a racing horse.
MUR MUR
Abnormal heart sounds caused by valvular disease.
VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
Life-threatening dysrhythmia that causes the ventricular myocardium to quiver in an uncoordinated and ineffective way.
SA NODE
Pacemaker

Place where the electrical signal normally arises.
BRADYCARDIA
Heart rate below 60 beats per minute
Bundle of HIS
Specialized conduction tissue in the interventricular septum.

Divided into the right and left branches.
AV NODE
The electrical signal spreads from the conduction tissue in the atria to this structure.
ECTOPIC FOCUS
Area outside of the SA node that gives rise to an electrical signal
PURKINJE FIBERS
These fast-conducting fibers spread the electrical signal throughout the ventricular wall.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
Record of the electrical activity of the heart (a heart chart).
NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM
Electrical activity appears normal and the signal arises within the SA node.
TACHYCARDIA
Heart rate greater then 100 beats per minute.
P- WAVE
ECG deflection that indicates atrial depolarization.

Electrical event that stimulates atrial contraction
QRS COMPLEX
ECG deflection that indicates ventricular depolarization.

Electrical event that stimulates ventricular myocardial contraction.
T- WAVE
ECG deflection that indicates ventricular repolarization.
P-R INTERVAL
Lengthening of this time indicates heart block.