psych final

- an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
- an individual's unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature, which gets expressed in one's traits and cultural situation
- today's personality researchers study the basic dimensions of personality, the biological roots of these dimensions, and the interaction of persons and environments
- they also study self-esteem, self-serving bias, and cultural influences on one's sense of self
free association
- in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
- "discovered" the unconscious
- most famous psychologist; came up with psychoanalysis
- determinist; nothing was ever accidental
- according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
- according to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
- iceberg example: conscious mind is above water, everything else (majority) is beneath
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. People who think with the present than the future
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. Contains our partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgments, and memories
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Moral compass; strives for perfection, judging actions and producing positive feelings of pride or negative feelings of guilt
Oedipus Complex
- according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Supposedly also experience guilt and a lurking fear of punishment from father. Parallel is called Electra Complex
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Defense Mechanisms
- in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
- repression, regression, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, displacement, denial
- in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
- explains why we do not remember our childhood lust for our parent of other sex; also believed that this is often incomplete, with repressed urges seeping out in dream symbols and slips of the tongue
- psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
- "the thief thinks that everyone else is a thief"
Reaction formation
- psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
- thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
- psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
- psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Carl Jung
- Freud's disciple turned dissenter
- placed less emphasis on social factors and agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence
- believed the unconscious contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelings
- collective unconscious: concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history. Explains why, for many people, spiritual concerns are deeply rooted and why people in different cultures share certain myths and images (mother—nurturing)
Projective Tests
- a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
- Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
- Rorschach inkblot test: the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
- proposed we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
- developed ideas by studying healthy, creative people rather than troubled clinical cases
- according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Carl Rogers
- believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies
- believed that a growth-promoting climate required 3 conditions: genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
Unconditional Positive Regard
- according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
- an attitude of grace, an attitude that values us even knowing our failings
- the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
- although it assesses "abnormal" personality tendencies rather than normal personality traits, the MMPI illustrates a good way of developing a personal inventory
Internal Locus of Control
- the perception that you control your own fate
- internals achieve more in school and work, act more independently, enjoy better health, and feel less depressed than do externals. Moreover, they better delay gratification and cope with various stress problems
External Locus of Control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
Spotlight effect
- overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
- fewer people notice than we presume; others are also less aware than we suppose of the variability of our appearance and performance.
Psychological Disorders--historical understanding
- deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behaviors
- to explain puzzling behavior, people often presumed that the movements of the stars, godlike powers or evil spirits were at work
- Middle Ages—"devil made him do it"; to rid the evil force—exorcising the demon
-"mad" people were sometimes caged in zoo-like conditions or given "therapies" appropriate to a demon: beatings, burning, or castration
-therapy included trephination (drilling holes in the skull), pulling teeth, removing lengths or intestines, cauterizing the clitoris, or giving transfusions of animal blood
- some insisted madness is not demon possession but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions; replaced brutality with fresh and clean air and rooms
generalized anxiety disorder
- an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic attack
- an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
- an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
- not all phobias have specific triggers
- fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes
- given such fear, people may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus, or on an elevator
- an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
- when obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors persistently interfere with everyday living and cause the person distress
- more common in teens and young adults than among older people
- repetitive thoughts
- concern with dirt, germs, toxins; something terrible happening (fire, death, illness); symmetry, order, exactness
- post traumatic stress disorder: an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks or more after a traumatic experience
- what was once called "shellshock" or "battle fatigue"
- symptoms have been reported by survivors of accidents, war, disasters, and violent and sexual assaults
- the greater one's emotional distress during a trauma, the higher the risk for post-traumatic symptoms
- the more frequent an assault experience, the more adverse the long-term outcomes tend to be
- some believe symptoms may be genetically predisposed
- survivor resiliency: those who do not develop PTSD
Dissociative Disorder
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
-a rare dissociative in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (formerly called multiple personality disorder)
- typically the original personality denies any awareness of the other(s)
Major Depressive Disorder
- a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
- occurs when at least 5 signs of depression (including lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, or loss of interest in family, friends, and activities)
Bipolar Disorder
- a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic depressive disorder)
- adolescent mood sings, from rage to bubbly, can, when prolonged, produce a bipolar diagnosis
- a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
-person is over-talkative, overactive, elated though easily irritable, has little need for sleep
- a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
- immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
(presence of inappropriate behaviors) hallucinations, talk in disorganized and deluded ways, and exhibit inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
(absence of inappropriate behaviors) toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute and rigid bodies
Acute schizophrenia
when a previously well-adjusted person develops schizophrenia rapidly following particular life stresses; recovery is much more likely; more often have the positive symptoms that are more likely to respond to drug therapy
Chronic Schizophrenia
when schizophrenia is a slow-developing process; recovery is doubtful; often exhibit the persistent and incapacitating negative symptom of withdrawal
Antisocial Personality Disorder
- a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
- sociopath or psychopath; personalities fear and feel little; expresses little regret over violating others' rights; woven of both biological and psychological strands; nature and nurture interact
eclectic approach to therapy
- depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
- receiving drug therapy with a combination of psychotherapy (treatment with therapist)
- Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
- the first of the psychological therapies; historical reconstruction; therapy, not science
- in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
- blocks in the flow of your free associations; hint that anxiety lurks and you are defending against sensitive material
- in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
- may find yourself experiencing strong positive of negative feelings for your analyst; transferring feelings you experienced in earlier relationships with family members or other important people
psychodynamic therapies
- therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
- help person explore and gain perspective on defended-against thoughts and feelings; enable insight by looking for common recurring themes, especially in relationships
- see patients face-to-face appointments, once a week, for a few weeks or months
- interpersonal psychotherapy aims to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties, but it's goal is symptom relief in the here and now, not overall personality change
humanistic approach to therapy
- has emphasized people's inherent potential for self-fulfillment
- aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance
- focus on present and future—explore feelings as they occur; conscious thoughts; take immediate responsibility for one's feelings and actions; promoting growth
- client-centered therapy
active listening
- empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
- counselor listens attentively and interrupts only to restate and confirm feelings, to accept what is being expressed, or to seek clarification; psychological mirror
behavior therapies
- therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
- assume behaviors are the problems, and the application of learning principles can eliminate them
- view maladaptive symptoms—such as phobias or sexual disorders—as learned behaviors that can be replaced by constructive behaviors
- a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
Systematic desensitization
- a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
- commonly used to treat phobias; if you can repeatedly relax when facing anxiety provoking stimuli, you can gradually eliminate your anxiety; **proceed gradually
aversive conditioning
- a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
token economy
- an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapies
- therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between evens and our emotional reactions
- therapists try in various ways to teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking
aaron beck
- cognitive therapist; found recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonment that extended into their waking thoughts
- sought to reverse clients' catastrophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations, and their futures through gentle questioning
- physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders
- not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D.s they can prescribe medications
- they tend to see those with the most serious problems, many have their own private practice
biomedical therapies
- a prescribed medication or medical procedure that acts directly on the patient's nervous system
- used with serious disorders; physically changing the brain's functioning by altering its chemistry with drugs, or affecting its circuitry with electroconvulsive shock, magnetic impulses, or psychosurgery
- only psychiatrists (as MDs) offer these therapies
- electroconvulsive therapy; a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
- patient receives a general anesthetic and a muscle relaxant (to prevent injury from convulsions) before a psychiatrist delivers 30-60 seconds of electrical current to the patient's brain
- now administered with briefer pulses and sometimes only to the brain's right side (less memory disruption)
- surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
- effects are irreversible; most drastic and least-used biomedical intervention for changing behavior; only used in extreme cases and as a last result
- ex: lobotomy
attribution theory
- the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
- usually attribute others' behavior either to their internal dispositions or to their external situations
fundamental attribution error
- the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
- overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
- the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Zimbardo's prison study
- male college students; some prisoners, some guards; really played part and had to be cut off early
cognitive dissonance
- the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
- i.e. when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
- we often bring our attitudes into line with out actions; the less coerced and more responsible we feel for a troubling act, the more dissonance we feel. The more dissonance we feel, the more motivated we are to find consistency, such as changing our attitudes to help justify the act.
Stanley Milgram's experiment
- teachers and learners—shocks; obedience; prior to experiment, most people declared they would stop but 63% complied fully to finish the experiment.
social facilitation
- stronger responses or simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
- experiments reveal that the presence of either observers of co-actors can arouse individuals, boosting their performance on easy tasks but hindering it on difficult ones
social loafing
- the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
group polarization
- the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
- can have beneficial issues; amplifies a sought-after spiritual awareness or reinforces the resolve of those in a self-help group
- can have dire consequences; high-prejudice students discussed racial issue and became more prejudiced
group think
- the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
- to preserve good group feeling, any dissenting views are suppressed or self-censored, especially after someone voices their enthusiasm
- an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members
- generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
- "prejudgment"
ingroup bias
- the tendency to favor our own group
- the social definition of who we are also implies who we are not
- mentally drawing a circle that defines "us" (the ingroup) excludes "them" (the outgroup)
social-responsibility norm
- an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them