How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

857 terms


Developmental Science
A field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
process of gradually augmenting the same type of skills that were there to begin with
Process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
unique combonations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change
nature-nurture controversy
Are genetic or environmental factors more important
Lifespan perspective
a leading dynamic systems approach that includes four assumptions: development is 1. lifelong, 2. multidimensional and multidirectional, 3. highly plastic and 4. affected by multiple interacting forces
Age graded influences
Events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last.
history graded influences
Explain why people are born around the same time--called cohort--tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times.
non normative
events irregular - happens to one of few people - not predictable
natural selection, survival of the fittest, no two species are alike
G. Stanley Hall
first PHD in psychology in the US; founder of the American Psychology Association (APA) - founder of the child study movement - maturational process - genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically
mental testing movement
Alfred Binet - identify children with learning problems for special classes . Binet and Theodore Simon constructed first successful intelligence test.
Correlated adults emotional issues with troubled childhoods
psycho-sexual theory
Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Super ego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
Psychosexual Stages
is part of Freud's psycholdynamic theory where each of the five stages refers to an area of the body to which a person feels dominant pleasure starting with oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital. Failure to resolve problems occuring during these stages can lead to fixation in adulthood
Birth - 1st year - new ego directs baby to sucking activities to breast or bottle - if not proper could lead to overeating and smoking
1-3 years potty training essential or could lead to extreme orderliness and cleansiness or messiness and disorder
3-6 years - Super ego formed - children feel guilty about genital stimulation
6-11 years - sexual instinct die down and super ego develops - acquires new social values
adolescence - puberty, phallic impulses resurface development, if good = marriage mature sexually and birth and rearing of children
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior. - observing the stimuli and responses
John Watson
American Psychologist, 1st proponent of behaviorism, said Psychology was completely based on experiments and physical reactions, in one experiment he caused a young child to become terrified of furry objects by ringing a bell (little Albert)
Erikson's psychosocial theory
He emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual and active, contributing member of society
Classical conditioning - unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex.
B.F Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory
Emphasis on modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of development
Behavior Modification
procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
Piaget's Cognitive developmental theory
characterized children as "mini scientists" who interacted with the environment and used their observations to revise their way of thinking. It posited that children develop schemas about the world that progress through four stages of development.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, From birth to about age 2; the period during which the infant explores the environment & acquires knowledge through sensing & manipulating objects
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, From age 2 to about age 7; characterized by increasing use of symbols & prelogical thought processes - make believe
Concrete operational
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, 7-11 years. Thinking logically about concrete events; understanding concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations. Major achievements: Classifying objects. Perceive directly
Formal operational
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 +, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events. Thought is abstract and hypothetical. Logical thought. Adolescents can also evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances
Information processing
Human mind as a symbol manipulating system through which info flows. From the time information is presented to the senses at input until it emerges as a behavioral response at output, info is coded, transformed and organized.
developmental cognitive neuroscience
brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
Concerned with adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Konrad Lorenz
observed behavioral patterns that promote survival
inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in their environment
Critical period
Individual is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but need support of stimulating environment
Sensitive period
individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
John Bowlby
Caretakers as secure base, similar to imprinting, infants form attachments to satisfy basic biological needs (hunger, comfort, warmth)
Evolutionary developmental Psychology
seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies and those competencies change with age
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation, socially mediated process and influential in the study of cognitive development
Ecological system theory
views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
The developing person is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems.
The immediate settings with which the child interacts, such as the home, the school, and one's peers
Third parties
affect the quality of any two person relationship
it involves the relationships between microsystems, or connections between contexts.
Parts of environment child has no direct contact with but is impacted by (eg. neighborhood, church, mass media, government, parents workplace)
Outermost level of bronfenbernner's model that is not a specific context but consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
Ecological transitions
shifts in microsystem
Life changes can be imposed externally or can arise from within the person
Naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Structured observation
investigator sets up a lab situation that evoke the behavior of interest so that every participant has equal opportunity to display responae.
clinical interview
researchers use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
self report instruments in which each participant is asked the same question
extensive field notes researcher tries to capture the cultures unique values and social processes
Correlational design
researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, without altering their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants' characteristics and their behavior or development
correlation coefficient
A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
Experimental design
A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship
expects to cause changes in another variable
investigators expects to be influenced by independent varaible
longitudinal design
participants are studied repeatedly and changes are notes as they get older
cross sectional
studies groups of different aged peoples
combination of cross sectional and longitudinal
observational characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
blend of genetic info that determines our species and influences and all our unique characteristics
store and transmit genetic info
Chemical substance that make up chromosomes
segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
The process in which DNA duplicates itself
sex cells - sperm and ovum combine
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Sperm and ovum unite at conception the zygote is the resulting cell
22 of the 23 pairs are matching pairs
sex chromosome
23rd pair
Fraternal or Dizygotic twins
the most common type of multiple births, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova.
identical or monozygotic twins
twins that result when a zygote, during the early stages of cell duplication, divides into two. They have the same genetic makeup
each form of a gene
alleles from both parents are alike
alleles differ
Dominant-recessive inheritance
only one allele affects the child's characteristics. it is called dominant; the second allele, which has no effect is called recessive
heterozygous individuals with just one recessive allele can pass that trait to their children
Phenulketonuria: A genetic abnormality in which a child cannot metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid, which consequently builds up in the body and causes mental retardation. If treated with a special diet, retardation is prevented
Incomplete dominance
a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two
Sickle cell anemia
child inherits two recessive genes, A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
X-Linked inheritance
when a harmful allele is carried on the x-chromosome __ inheritance applies. Males are more likely to be affected because their sex chromosomes do not match
genomic imprinting
alleles are imprinted so that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup
sudden change in a segment of DNA
Polygenic inheritance
many genes influence the characteristic in question
Down syndrome
1-1,000 live births.failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis, so individual inherits 3 of these chromosomes rather than normal 2.
translocation pattern
when the 21st chromosome is attached to another chromosome
mosaic pattern
when some but not all body cells have defective chromosomal makeup, because of an error that occurred during the early stages of mitosis
genetic counseling
help understand genetic principles, testing and prevention of genetic disorders
prenatal diagnostic methods
medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth
technique that places a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whose copy of the gene is defective
Socioeconomic status
1. years of education 2. prestige of ones job and skill it requires 3. Income
collectivist societies
people define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
individualistic societies
think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
heriditary estimates
measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in specific population are due to genetic factors
kinship studies
compare the characteristics of family members
range of reaction
each persons unique, genetically determined response to the environment
genetic environmental correlation
our genes influence the environment to which we are exposed
evocative correlation
children evoke responses that are influence by the children's heredity
passive correlation
child has no control over it , parents provide certain genes and environments for their children
active correlation
children extend their experiences beyond the immediate family are given the freedom to make more choices, they actively seek environments that fit with their genetic tendencies
tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
two walnut sized organs located deep inside abdomen
fallopian tubes
long, thing structures that lead to the hallow, softlined uterus
two glands located in scrotum - produces an average of 300 million sperm a day
sac that lies behind the penis
corpus luteum
spot on the ovary from which releases secretes hormones
opening of the uterus
period of the zygote
2 weeks - fertilized ovum duplicated rapidly forming a hollow ball of cells or blastocyst - fourth day after fertilization
fourth day of period of zygote, 60-70 cells exist that form a hollow, fluid-filled ball
embryonic disk
cells inside the blastocyst
outer ring of cells
blastocyst burrows deep into uterine lining
innermost membrane that encloses the embryo
amniotic fluid
fluid surrounding a fetus within amnion keeps temperature of prenatal world constant and provides cushion against women's movements
Yolk sac
produces blood cells until essential the liver, spleen, and bone marrow are mature enough to function
protective membrane that surrounds the amnion
permits food and oxygen to reach organism and waste products to be carried away
umbilical cord
one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products
period of embryo
implantation through 8th week of pregnancy, ground work is laid for all body structures and organs
neural tube
ectodorm folds over to form neural tube which becomes spinal cord and brain
nerve cells that store and transmit info
period of fetus
9th week - end of pregnancy - growth and finishing - organism increases rapidly in size
prenatal development periods
protects fetus skins from chaping during months in amniotic fluid
hair around body helping vernix stick to the skin
glial cells
support/feed the neurons
age of viability
point fetus con survive 22-26 weeks
cerebral cortex
outer layer of cerebrum - consciousness
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
illegal drugs
prematurity, low birth, weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties and death around time of birth - born drug addicted
tobacco impact
low birth weight, miscarries prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing during sleep, infant death, asthma, cancer increase
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
the umbrella term that describes a range of effects from mothers consuming alcohol while pregnant. symptoms include mental, physical, behavioral and/or learning difficulties all with possible lifelong issues
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant. indentation running from bottom of nose to upper lip
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (P-FAS)
facial abnormalities brain injury - mom drank smaller quantities of alcohol
alcohol related neuro-developmental disorder (ARND)
atleast three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities. - less pervasive than in FAS
Rh factor incompatibility
When the mother is Rh-negative (lacks the Rh blood protein) and the father is Rh-positive (has the protein), the baby may inherit the father's Rh -positive blood type. If even a little of a fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, she begins to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen sypply to organs and tissues.
Stages of childbirth
effacement & dilation; delivery of baby; delivery of placenta
Apgar scale
a quick test used to assess a just-delivered baby's condition by measuring heart rate, muscle tone, respiration, reflex response, and color
natural prepared childbirth
a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible
Cerebral palsy
a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
inadequate oxygen supply
Breech position
a position of the baby in the uterus that would cause the buttocks or feet to be delivered first
Fetal monitors
electronic instruments that track the baby's heart rate during labor
Cesarean delivery
the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
infants born several weeks before their due date
small for date
smaller than they would be expected based on length of time since conception
also known as an incubator; a clear plastic enclosed bassinet used to keep prematurely born infants warm. The temperature of an isolette can be adjusted regardless of the room temperature. Some isolettes also provide humidity control.
respiratory distress syndrome
A disorder of preterm infants in which the lungs are so immature that the air sacs collapse, causing serious breathing difficulties. born 6 weeks early.
kangaroo care
skin to skin contact, shows a decrease in pain, increase in oxygen saturation, promotes parent-child bonding
an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
moro (embrancing) reflex
infant startle response to sudden, intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back, throws back its head, and flings out its arms and legs.
rooting reflex
reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek
palmar grasp reflex
reflexive curling of the infant's fingers around an object that touches its palm
stepping reflex
Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
states of arousal
different degrees of sleep and wakefulness (5 stages are: Regular Sleep, Irregular Sleep, Drowsiness, Quiet Alertness, Waking Activity/Crying)
rapid eye movement sleep
brain wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids: heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven and slight bod movements occur
non-rapid eye movement sleep
the body is almost motionless and heart rate, breathing and brain waves activity are slow and even
persistent crying
sudden infant death syndrome
completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).
visual acuity
sharpness of vision for either distance or nearness
skeletal age
estimating a child's physical maturity - measurement of bone development
cephalocaudal trend
head to tail - head grows more rapidly than lower part of the body
proximodistal trend
growth proceeds from near to far - center of the body outward
store and transmit activities
gap between different neurons - little fibers
neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals cross the synapse
synaptic pruning
returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so that they can support future development
glial cells
responsible for myelination
the process by which neural fibers are coated with a fatty sheath called myelin that makes message transfer more efficient
neurophysiological methods
researchers study the brains developing organization and activity
electrodes, usually embedded in a head cap, are attached to the scalp with conductive gel to record electrical brain wave activity in the brain's outer layers - the cerebral cortex
event-related potentials (fMRI)
using the EEG, the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to particular stimuli (such as a picture, music, or speech) are recorded in the cerebral cortex. enables identification of general regions of stimulus-induced activity
neuro-imaging techniques
yield detailed 3 dimensional computerized pictures of entire brain its activity areas, which brain regions are specialized for certain capacities
cerebral cortex
surrounds brain - half walnut - largest most complex - 85% of brains weight and contains greatest number of neurons and synapses
frontal lobe
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
motor cortex
part of cerebral cortex - nerve impulses originate the initiate voluntary muscular activity
parietal lobe
lobes at top of head - reception and correlation of sensory info
sensorimotor cortex
sensory and motor functions
temporal lobe
paired lobes of the brains lying beneath the temples including areas concerned with understanding of speech
auditory cortex
occipital lobe
rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere
visual cortex
receives and processes sensory nerve impulses from the eyes
sides of cerebral cortex, each side has diff functioning
one side of brain has more control then other
brain plasticity
the ability of the brain structure to constantly change both the structure and function of many cell in response to experience and trauma
experience expectant brain growth
the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences-opportunities to see and touch objects to hear language and other sounds and to move about and explore the environment.
experience dependent brain growth
new growth and refinement of brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. reading and writing, playing computer games and practicing the violin are examples
a hormone within the brain that promotes drowsiness greater at night than day
catch up growth
genetically influenced path once conditions improve
breast feeding versus bottle
breast feeding offers protection against respiratory and intestinal infections. Bottles in impoverished areas risk of contaminated substance - illness or death
wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. it usually appears in the first year when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle feeding is also inadequate
caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age.
food insecurity
uncertain access to enough food for healthy active life
non organic failure to thrive
growth disorder that results from lack of parental love, is usually present by 18 months of age. Infants who have it show all the signs of marsamus- their bodies looked wasted, and they are withdrawn and apathetic. But no organic (or biological) cause for the babies failue to grow can be found.
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
unconditioned stimulus
consistently produces a reflexive unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus
neutral stimulus by itself produces a response similar to reflexive response - conditioned response
when conditioned response paired with unconditioned stimulus - condition response is lost
operant conditioning
a method of influencing behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired ones
stimulus that increases the occurrence
stimulus that decreases the occurrence
gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to a repetitive stimulation
new stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level
copying the behavior of another person
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
dynamic systems theory of motor development
mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. when motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
cross motor skills
acquired during infancy/childhood - motor development
fine motor skills
coordination of small muscle movements
poorly coordinated arm/hand control
ulnar grasp
clumsy motion which fingers close against the palm
pincer grasp
, using the fore-finger and the thumb in opposition to pick up small objects
baby's receptors detect when exposed to stimuli
active, organize and interpret what we see
Believed that children are born with an innate capacity to learn language. Innate knowledge is universal grammar that is in all languages. Created the Language Acquisition Device
Language Acquisition Device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
statistical learning capacity
analyzing the speech stream for patterns- regularly occurring sequences of sounds-they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months
visual acuity
fineness of discrimination - sharpness of vision
depth perception
distance of objects
visual cliff
This is a laboratory device for testing depth perception, especially in infants and young animals. In their experiments with the visual, Gibson and Walk found strong evidenced depth perception is at least in part innate.
motion depth cue
first depth cue to which infants are sensitive
binocular depth cue
two eyes have slightly different views of visual field
pictorial depth cue
painting looks 3 dimensional
intermodal perception
we make sense of theses running streams of light , sound, tactile, odor and taste information by perceiving them as unified wholes
differentation theory
infants actively search for invariant features of the environment-those that remain stable-in a constantly changing perceptual world
psychological structures - organized ways of making sense of experience
building schemes through direct interaction with environment
current schemes to interpret external world
create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely
balance between assimilation and accommodation - assimilate more than accommodate - steady comfortable condition
cognitive discomfort - new info doesn't match current schemes, shift from assimilation toward accommodation
Its a internal process. Once children form new schemes the rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system
semantic network
semantic relations among concepts
circular reaction
provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. The reaction is circular because as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again a sensorimotor response to that first occured by chance becomes stregnthened into a new scheme
intentional or goal-directed, behavior
coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
A-not-B search error
reach for A see it moved to B still go back and search in A
Mental representation
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
deferred imitation
remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
make-believe play
act out everyday and imaginary activities
violation of expectation method
researchers habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines). Then they determine whether infants recover to (look longer at) an expected event (a variation of the first event that follows physical laws) or an unexpected event (a variation that violates physical laws.) Recovery to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality as indicted by heightened attention and therefore is aware of that aspect of the physical world.
core knowledge perspective
babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. Each of these pre-wired understanding permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefor supports early, rapid development
Information Processing Theory
know exactly what individuals of different ages do when with a task or problem
mental strategies
we use this to operate and transform information, which helps us increase the chances that we will retain information, use it efficiently and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances
sensory register
sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
working/short term memory
actively apply mental strategies as we work on limited amount of info
central executive
manage complex activities, a special part of working memory, directs the flow of information. It decides what to attend to, coordinates incoming information, already in the system and selects and applies and monitors strategies
long term memory
our permanent knowledge base
getting information back from the system
permanent info - no retrieving necessary
noticing when a stimulus is idenitical or similar to one previously experienced
remembering something not present
similar to overall experience
common function or behaviors
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation, socially mediated process and influential in the study of cognitive development
zone of proximal development
range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can with the help of more skilled partners
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
private speech
children's self-directed speech that they use to guide their behavior and talk themselves through new tasks -- this gradually turns to inner speech
cooperative learning
A learning process in which learners work together. (Vygotsky said all learning was social)
intelligence quotient
extent to which the raw score deviates from typical performance of same age individuals
giving the test to a large representative - sample and using results as the standard for interpreting scores
normal distribution
most scores cluster around the mean or average fewer failures
home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
HOME, a checklist for fathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview
Developmentally appropriate practice
research-based standards devised by the National Association for the Education of Young Children that specify program characterisitcs that meet the developmental and individual needs of young children of varying ages
Behaviorist perspective on language development
language is acquired through operant conditioning - environment
Nativist perspective on language development
children pre-wired to master intricate rules of language - Language acquisition device
sensitive period
consistent with Chomsky's biologically based language program
interactionist perspective
interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences
vowel like noises "oo" quality
repeat consonant - vowel combinations "babababababa"
joint attention
child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver
preverbal gestures
influence other behaviors - for example: pointing at cupboard with a toy because he wants a cookie
applying new learned words too narrowly
applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate
telegraphic speech
focus on high content words omitting smaller,less important words "mommy shoe" " more cookie"
referential style
vocabularies consisted mainly of words that refer to objects
expressive style
social formulas and pronouns "thank you" "done" "i want it"
child directed speech (CDS)
short sentences with high pitched exaggerated expression distinct pauses between speech segments of repetitive new words
basic trust versus mistrust
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively if the balance of care, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving
autonomy versus shame and doubt
in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and appropriate choices
initiative versus guilt
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden.
basic emotions
happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness and disgust, universal in humans and other primates - long evolutionary history of promoting survival
social smile
between 6 and 10 weeks, the parents communication evokes a broad grin
stranger anxiety
frequent expression of fear is unfamiliar to adults
secure base
point from which to explore venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support
emotional contagion
feeling happy or sad when they sense these emotions in others
social referencing
actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation
self conscious emotions
humans are capable of a second higher order set of feelings including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, pride. Each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self
emotional self regulation
strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
early appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self regulation
quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention and motor activity
self regulation
strategies that modify that reactivity
Thomas and Chess
1856, NY Longitudinal study - investigation of development of temparment (141 children) - early infancy to adulthood - temparment either increases chance of psych problems or alternatively protect child from stressful home life - produced nine dimensions of the influential model of temparment. Certain characteristics clustered together yielding three types of children
Easy Child
(40 percent of sample) quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences
difficult child
(10 percent of sample) is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely
slow-to-warm-up child
(15 percent of sample) is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences
Mary Rothbart
temperament model - individual differ not just in their reactivity on each dimension but also in their self regulatory dimension of temperament
effortfull control
the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
inhibited or shy children
react negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli
uninhibited or sociable children
display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli
goodness of fit model
how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes. Goodness of fit involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by nearness in time of stress
studied Rhesus monkey's using contact comfort to show that it was an important basic affectional or love variable
ethological theory of attachment
infants emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, widely accepted
John Bowlby
caretakers as secure base, similar to imprinting, infants form attachments to satisfy basic biological needs (hunger, comfort, warmth). inspired by Konrad Lorenz
Preattachment phase
(birth to 6 weeks) built in signals (grasping, smiling, crying, gazing into eyes) help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans, who comfort them. recognition of mothers voice just not yet attached
attachment in the making
(6 weeks to 6-8 months) Infants now behave differently in the presence of familiar caregivers. They smile/laugh more often with them and are more easily consoled. learn that their actions affect the behavior of those around them - sense of trust
clear-cut attachment phase
(6-8 month to 18 months-2 years) babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves
formation of a reciprocal relationship
(18 months - 2 years and on) rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parents coming and going and to predict her return
internal working model
a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress. Becomes a model, or guide, for all future close relationships.
strange situation test
Gradually subjecting a child to a stressful situation and observing his or her behaviour toward the parent or caregiver; this test is used to classify children according to type of attachment: secure, resistant, or avoidant. Designed by Mary Ainsworth - takes the baby through 8 short episodes
secure attachment
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
avoidant attachment
infants who seem unresponsive to the parent when they are present, are usually not distressed when she leaves, and avoid the parent when they return
resistant attachment
infants who seek closeness to the parent before her departure, are usually distressed when she leaves, and combine clinginess with angry resistive behavior when she returns.
disorganized/ disoriented attachment
A type of anxious attachment in which the infant shows contradictory features of several patterns of anxious attachment or appears dazed and disoriented
attachment q-sort
(children 1-4 ) home observation to behavior into 9 categories ranging form highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of the child. than a score ranging from high to low insecurity is computed
sensitive caregiving
responding promptly consistently and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully
identification of the self as a physically unique being - is well established
ability to understand anothers emotional state and feel with that person or respond emotionally in a similar way
categorical self
between 18-30 months - classify themselves and others on the basis of age, sex, physical characteristics good versus bad
clear awareness of carergiver wishes and expectation and can obey simple requests and commands
delay of gratification
waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act
ages 2-6, 45 growth centers in which cartilage hardens into the bone, emerge in various parts of the skeleton
Dominant cerebral hemisphere
handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain - carry out skilled motor action
rear and base of the brain, structure that aids in balance and control of body movement
inner brain structure that has a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way
Corpus callosum
large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemisphere
Pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth
Growth hormone (GH)
Necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
prompts thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine
necessary for brain development and for growth hormone to have its fully impact on body size
Oral rehydration therapy
prevents developmental impairments and deaths due to diarrhea - sick children are given a solution of glucose, salt, and water that replaces fluids the body loses
Preoperational stage
2-7 years - obvious change in an extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic activity
Make believe play
development of representation - Piaget believed through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes
Sociodramatic play
make-believe with others that is under way around age 2 and increase rapidly during the next few years
Dual representation
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
Mental operations
mental actions that obey logical rules - thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment
failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
Three mountain problem
Piagets most convincing demonstration of egocentrism - each mountain is distinguished by its color and by its summit. one has a red cross, another a small house, and the third a snow-capped peak. children at the preoperational stage respond egocentrically. they cannot select a picture that shows the mountains form the dolls perspective. instead, they simply choose the photo that reflects their own vantage point.
Animistic thinking
belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions
refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
Hierarchical classification
organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
Class inclusion problem
demonstrates the limitation of hierarchical classification. Children are shown 16 flowers, 4 of which are blue and 12 of which are red. asked, "are there more red flowers or flowers?" the preoperational child responds, more red flowers, failing to realize that both red and blue flowers are included in the category "flowers". preoperational children enter on the overriding feature, red. they do not think reversibly by moving from the whole class (flowers) to the parts (Red and blue) and back again
Private speech
preschoolers as they play and explore the environment, and you will see that they frequently talk out loud to themselves
Egocentric speech
reflecting the belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others. Their talk- talk for self - express thoughts in whatever form they happen to occur, regardless of whether a listener can understand. Piaget believed that cognitive development and certain social experiences - bring an end to egocentric speech. Vygotsky disagreed with Piaget - language helps children think about their mental activities and behavior and select courses of action, foundation for all higher cognitive processes, including controlled attention, deliberate memorization and recall, catergorization, planning, problem solving and self-reflection - speak to themselves for self-guidance
Zone of proximal development
Vygotsky - a range of tasks to difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers.
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
Guided participation
broader concept than scaffolding. refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication
Recognition memory
ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before
Recall memory
child generate a mental image of an absent stimulus
Memory strategies
deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
general descriptions of what occurs in a particular situation
Autobiographical memory
representations of personally meaningful, one-time events
Elaborative style
follow the child's lead, ask varied questions, add information to the childs statements, and volunteer their own recollections and evaluations of events.
Repetitive style
provide little information and keep repeating the same questions, regardless of children's interest
thinking about thought (prefix meta-means beyond or higher)
Theory of mind
coherent set of ideas about mental activities
False beliefs
ones that do not represent reality accurately- can guide peoples actions
Emergent literacy
active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
Phonological awareness
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language
Interactive reading
adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers, promotes many aspects of language and literacy development
order relationships between quantities - 14 and 16 months
last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
Child centered programs
teachers provide a variety of activities from which children select and much learning takes place through play
Academic programs
teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes and there academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill
devised a century ago by Italian physician and child development researcher Maria Montessori, originally applied to poverty sicked children - promote exploration and discovery, child-chosen activities and equal emphasis on academic and social development
Project Head Start
1965, provides children with a year or two of preschool along with nutritional and health services. parent involvement is central to the head start philosophy
connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter
Mutual exclusivity bias
words refer to an entirely separate (nonoverlapping) categories -assign each word correctly, to the whole object and not just a part of it
sometimes overextended the rules to words that are exceptions - type of error
children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication - practical and social side of language
restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form
elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity
Initiative vs. Guilt
psychological conflict of preschool years. Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. they are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults - strides in conscious development
Self concept
set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
Self esteem
judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
Self conscious emotions
contribute to their developing sense of morality
contribute to their developing sense of morality
Emotional self regulation
age 3 to 4, children verbalize a variety of strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to a more comfortable level
Effortful control
inhibiting impulses and shifting attention - vital in managing emotion
Prosocial or altruistic behavior
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight
Nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel play
child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
Associative play
children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative play
a more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
Functional plays
simple, repetitive, motor movements with or without objects, especially common during the first two years
Constructive play
creating or constructing something, especially common between 3 and 6 years
Make-believe play
acting out everyday and imaginary roles, especially common between 2 and 6 years
in which an adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
Empathy based guilt
expressions of personal responsibility and regret - I'm sorry I hurt him
Time out
removing children from the immediate setting - sending them to their rooms until they are ready to act appropriately.
Withdrawal of privileges
removing something that the child desires
Positive discipline
encourage good conduct by building a mutually respectful bond with the child, letting the child know ahead of time how to act
Moral imperatives
protect peoples rights and welfare from other types of rules and expectations
Social conventions
customs determined solely by consensus such as table manners
Matters of personal choice
do not violate rights and are up to the individual such as choice of friends and leisure activities
Proactive or instrumental aggression
children act to fulfill a need or desire - obtain an object, privilege, space or social reward, such as adult or peer attention - and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal
Reactive or hostile aggression
angry defensive response to provocation or blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
Physical aggression
harms others through physical inquiry - pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others or destroying another's property
Verbal aggression
harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
Relational aggression
damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
Gender typing
refers to any association of objects, activities, roles ,or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
Generic utterances
referred to many or nearly all males or females as alike
In group favoritism
more positive evaluations of members of one's own gender becomes another factor that sustains the separate social worlds of boys and girls
Gender identity
iage of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics
Gender constancy
full understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender, including the realization that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
Gender schema theory
information processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
Gender schema
masculine and feminine categories that they use to interpret their world
Child rearing styles
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
Authoritative child rearing style
involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
Authoritarian child rearing style
low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
Psychological control
behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents
Permissive child rearing style
warm and accepting but uninvolved. either overindulging or inattentive and thus, engage in little control. they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
Uninvolved child rearing style
combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
Physical abuse
assaults, such as kicking, biting, shaking, punching or stabbing that inflict physical injury
Sexual abuse
fondling, intercourse, exhibitionism, commercial exploitation through prostitution or production of pornography, and other forms of exploitation
failure to meet a child's basic needs for food, clothing, medical attention or supervision
Emotional abuse
acts that could cause serious mental or behavioral disorders, including social isolation, repeated unreasonable demands, ridicule, humilaition, intimidation, or terrorizing
a greater than 20 percent increase over healthy weight, based on body mass index (BMI)
Body Mass Index
-a ratio of weight associated with body fat. (above the 85th percentile for a child's age and sex is considered overweight, a BMI above the 95th percentile obese
one-third of childhood chronic illness and the most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization. Bronchial tube are highly sensitive - in response to variety of stimuli such as cold weather, infection, exercise, allergies, and emotional stress, they fill with mucus and contract, leading to coughing, wheezing, and serious breathing difficulties
Rough and tumble play
friendly chasing and play-fighting
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 years and marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized than it was earlier
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reserve direction, returning to the starting point
mental actions that obey logical rules
Class inclusion problem
Ages between 7 and 10 - more aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at the same time - that is, on three relations at once.
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
Transitive inference
concrete operational child can also seriate mentally (Ex: Bob is older than Susan, and Susan is older than John, Is Bob older than John?"
Cognitive maps
their mental representation of familiar large-scale spaces such as their neighborhood or school
Continuum of acquisition
grand mastery of logical concepts is another indication of the limitations of concrete operational thinking
Neo-piagetian theorists
argue that the development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of gains in information-processing speed rather than a sudden shift to a new stage
Central conceptual structures
networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think more effectively about a wide range of situations
Memory strategies
deliberate mental activities we use to store and retain information
repeating the information to herself
grouping related items together
creating a relationship or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
involves inattention impulsivity and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social probles
Theory of mind
set of ideas abut mental activities becomes more elaborate and refined
awareness of thought
Mental inferences
False belief
a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning
Second order false belief
enables children to pinpoint the reasons that another person arrived at a certain belief
Private speech
speaking out loud and then silently to themselves
Cognitive self-regulation
process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
Academic self-efficacy
confidence in their own ability, which supports future self-regulation
Learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Phonological awareness
an awareness of an the ability to manipulate the sounds of sponken words; it is a broad tern that includes indentifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
Whole language approach
argues that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning. from the beginning children should be exposed to text in its complete form stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists so that they can appreciate the communicative function of the written language.
Phonics approach
believing that children should first be coached on phonics - the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds. Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material
General intelligence
reasoning ability
Group administered tests
intelligence tests given from time to time in classrooms
Individually administered tests
extensive training and experience to give will
Stanford - Binet Intelligence Scales
individuals from age 2 to adulthood. assesses general intelligence and five intellectual factors, each of which includes a verbal and a nonverbal mode of testing
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children
6-16 year olds. measures general intelligence and four broad factors: verbal reasoning, perceptual (or visual-spatial) reasoning, working memory, and processing speed
Componential analysis
look for relationship between aspects or components of information processing and children's intelligence test scores
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
identifies three broad, interacting intelligences. Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three intelligences to achieve success in life according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community
Analytical intelligence
information processing skills
Creative intelligence
capacity to solve novel problems
Practical intelligence
application of intellectual skills in everyday situations.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence, proposes at least eight independent intelligence
Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms and meaning of words and the functions of language
sensitivity to, and capacity to detect, logical or numerical patterns, ability to handle long chains of logical reasoning
ability to produce and appreciate pitch, rhythm, and aesthetic quality of the forms of musical expressiveness
ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately to perform transformations on those perceptions and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of relevent stimuli
ability to use the body skillfully to expressive as well as goal-directed purposes; ability to handle objects skillfully
ability to recognize and classify all varieties of animals, minerals, and plants
ability to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, temperments, motivations and intentions of others
ability to discriminate complex inner feelings and to use them to guide one's own behavior; knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences
Test bias
Collaborative style of communication
work together in a coordinated, fluid way, each focused on the same aspect of the problem
Hierarchical style of communication
parent directs each child to carry out an aspect of the task, and children work independently, like that of classrooms
Stereotype threat
the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype-can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
Dynamic assessment
innovation consistent with Vygotskys zone of proximal development, an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support
High stakes testing
communicative side of language
Topic focused style
describe experience beginning to end
Topic associating style
blend several similar anecdotes
using or knowing two languages
Sensitive period
A limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place.
Language immersion programs
..., English-speaking children are taught entirely in another language
Traditional classroom
..., classroom based on the educational philosophy that the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision-making. (students are relatively passive-listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks. their progress is evaluated by how well they deep up with a uniform set of standards for their grade.)
Constructivist classroom
..., A classroom that is based on the educational philosophy that students construct their own knowledge. Often grounded in Piaget's theory. Consists of richly equipped learning centers. small groups and individuals solving problems they choose for themselves and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs.
Social constructivist classrooms
children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings, as children acquire knowledge and strategies from working together, they become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development
Cooperative learning
Small group learning which has these elements; positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, structured activity, teamwork skills
Educational self-fulfilling prophecies
children may adopt teachers positive or negative views and start to live up to them
Inclusive classrooms
students with learning difficulties are placed in regular classrooms for all or part of school day, a practiced designed to prepare them for participation in society and to combat prejudices against individuals with disabilities
Learning disabilities
great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. their achievement is considerably behind what would be expected on the basis of the IQ
displaying exceptional intellectual strengths
ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate- something others have not thought of that is useful in some way
Divergent thinking
generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem
Convergent thinking
arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests
outstanding performance in a specific field
Industry versus inferiority
resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
Self concept
organizing their observations of behavior and internal states into general dispositions
Perspective taking
inferring other's attitudes toward the child-incorporating those attitudes into their self-definitions
Social comparisons
judgments of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
Ideal self versus real self
The ideal self is the composite of all the good things that an individual wants to be; it is the definition of the person who totally lives up to the values that he/she holds dear. The real self, on the other hand, is made up of what each individual actually does.
Self esteem (categories)
1. Academic competence (language arts, math, other school projects) competence (relationship with peer and relationship with parents) 3. physical/athletic competence (outdoor games, various sports) 4. physical appearance
Authoritative child rearing style
involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior
Mastery oriented attributions
crediting their successes to ability - a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on when facing new challenges. And they attribute failure to factors than can be changed or controlled such as insufficient effort or a very difficult task
Learned helplessness
attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability. when they succeed, they conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. Unlike their mastery-oriented counterparts, they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard
Achievement related attributions
Trait statements promote a fixed view of ability,leading children to question their competence in the face of setbacks and to retreat from challenge
Attribution retraining
encourages learned helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort
Problem-centered coping
children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it. If it doesn't work they engage in emotion-centered coping
Emotion-centered coping
internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome
Emotional self-efficacy
a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience
Perspective taking
capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling
Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
1. Level 0: Undifferentiated perspective taking (age 3-6) - children recognize that self and other can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confuse the two. 2. Level 1: Social-informational perspective taking (ages 4-9) - children understand that different perspective may result because people have access to different information. 3. Level 2: self-reflective perspective taking (ages 7-12) - children can "step into another person's shoes" and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other person's perspective. Level 3: Third-party perspective taking (age 10-15) - children can step outside a two-person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third, impartial party. Level 4: Societal perspective taking (ages 14-adult) individuals understand that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of larger societal values
Peer groups
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
Peer acceptance
likability-the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner
Popular children
who get many positive votes - well liked
Rejected children
negative votes -disliked
Controversial children
large number of positive and negative votes - both liked and disliked
Neglected children
seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively
Popular prosocial children
combine academic and social competence, performing well in school and communicating with peers in sensitive, friendly, and cooperative ways
Popular antisocial children
tough boys - athletically skilled but poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority - and relationally aggressive boys and girls who enhance their own status by ignoring, excluding, and spreading rumors about other children
Rejected aggressive children
show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive and impulsive behavior
Rejected withdrawn children
passive and socially awkward
Peer victimization
certain children become targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse
Gender typicality
the degree to which the child feels similar to others of the same gender
Gender contentedness
the degree to which the child feels satisfied with his or her gender assignment, which also promotes happiness
Felt pressure to conform to gender roles
the degree to which the child feels parents and peers disapprove of his or her gender-related traits
a form of supervision in which parents exercise general over-sight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making
Divorce mediation
a series of meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict
Joint custody
both parents retain legal custody of their children after divorce
Blended or reconstituted family
Is also called stepfamily arises when adults remarry and bring together their children from previous marriges
Self care children
children who regularly take care of themselves after school hours
5 percent of school-age children develop an intense, unmanageable fear
School phobia
children feel severe apprehension about attending school, often accompanied by physical complaints
transition between childhood and adulthood
a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
Growth hormone
Stimulates growth and metabolism
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristics
Adrenal androgens
influence girls height spurt and stimulate growth of underarm and pubic hair
Growth spurt
first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight
Primary sexual characteristics
involve the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females, penis, scrotum and testes in males
Secondary sexual characteristics
visible outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity (for example, breast development in females and the appearance of underarm and pubic hair in both sexes)
first menstruation
around age 13.5 first ejaculation occurs
signals brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
Secular trend
Long turn upward or downward direction of a certain set of statistical measurements, as opposed to a smaller, shorter cyclical variation.
Initiation ceremony
the formal induction of a young person into adulthood
Body image
the way a person thinks his or her body looks, which may or may not be the way it actually does look
Anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
Bulimia nervosa
eating disorder in which young people (mainly in girls, but gay and bisexual boys are also vulnerable ) engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives
Drug experimenter
psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people
Drug abuser
A person using an addictive substance becomes an abuser when they knowlinly continue to user a specific medication beyond its normal prescribed level., Noticeable Psychological dependencey on the drug which will lead to a large array psychological problem if the drug is stopped. Will do almost anything to achieve the meds. i.e. lie, cheat, and steal.
Formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world
Pendulum problem
Piaget's classic test to formal operations, in which persons are asked to figure out what determines the speed at which a pendulum sways from side to side.
Propositional thought
adolescents ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without referring to real-world circumstances
Imaginary audience
adolescent belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
Personal fable
certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated opinion of their own importance - a feeling that they are special and unique
major personality achievement of adolescence and as a crucial step toward becoming a productive, content adult. constructing an identity involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue in life
Identity crisis
distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society
Erickson's Identity versus Role Confusion
if young ones people's earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that do not match their abilities and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges of adulthood
Exploration vs. commitment
Young people try out life possibilities, they gather important information about themselves and their environment and move toward making enduring decisions.
Identity statuses
four combinations that are rooted from Erikson's theory of exploration and commitment
Identity achievement
commitment to values, beliefs and goals following a period of exploration
Identity moratorium
exploration without having reached commitment
Identity foreclosure
commitment in the absences of exploration
Identity diffusion
an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment
Identity domains
sexual orientation, vocation, and religious and political values
Information gathering cognitive style
when making personal decision and solving problems: seek relevant information, evaluate it carefully and critically reflect on and revise their views
Dogmatic, inflexible cognitive style
internalizing the values and beliefs of parents and other without deliberate evaluation and resisting information that threatens their position
Diffuse avoidant cognitive style
avoid dealing with personal decisions and problems allow current situational pressures to dictate their reactions
Ethnic identity
a sense of ethnic group membership and attitudes and feelings of associated with that membership
Acculturative stress
psychological distress resulting from conflict between minority and the host culture
Bicultural identity
exploring and adopting values from both the adolescent's subculture and the dominant culture
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
moral understanding is promoted by the same factors Piaget thought were important for cognitive development: 1) actively grappling with moral issues and noticing weaknesses in one's current reasoning and 2) gains in perspective taking, which permit individuals to resolve moral conflicts in more effective ways
Preconventional levels
morality is externally controlled . children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences. Behaviors that result in punishment are viewed as bad, those that lead to rewards as good
Punishment and obedience orientation
children at this stage find it difficult to consider two points of view in a oral dilemma. as a result, they overlook people's intentions. instead, they focus on fear of authority and avoidance of punishment as reasons for behaving morally
Instrumental purpose orientation
children become aware that people can have different perspectives in a moral dilemma, but at first this understanding is concrete. they view right action as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as equal exchange of favors: you do this for me and ill do that for you
Conventional level
individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self interest. they believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order
Good-boy good-girl orientation
desire to obey rules because they promote social harmony first appears in the context of close personal ties
Social-order orientation
individual takes into account a larger perspective -that of societal laws. moral choices no longer depend on close ties to others. instead, rules must be enforced in the same evenhanded fashion for everyone, and each member of society has a personal duty to uphold them.
Postconventional or principled level
move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. they define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
Social contract orientation
individuals regard laws and rules as flexible instruments for furthering human purposes. they can imagine alternatives to their own social order, and they emphasize fair procedures for interpreting and changing the law. - free and willing participation in the system because it brings about more good for people than if it did not exist
Universal ethical principle orientation
right action is defined by self-chosen ethical principles of conscience that are valid for all people, regardless of law and social agreement.
Gilligan's ethic of care
a concern for others is a different but no less valid basis for moral judgment than a focus on impersonal rights
Moral self relevance
the degree to which morality is central to self-concept
Just educational environments
teachers guide students in democratic decision making and rule setting, resolving disputes civilly, and taking responsibility for others' welfare- are influential
Pragmatic approach to morality
everyday moral judgments - rather than being efforts to arrive at just solutions-are practical tools that people use to achieve their goals. To benefit personally, people often must advocate cooperation with others. People frequently act first and then invoke moral judgments to rationalize their actions, regardless of whether their behavior is self-centered or prosocial
Gender intensification
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior and movement toward a more traditional gender identity
a sense of oneself as a separate, self governing individual
viewing parents as "just people"
repeatedly mull over problems and negative emotions-an activity that sparks anxiety and depression
group of about five to seven members who are friends and therefore usually resemble one another in family background,attitudes, and values
several cliques with similar values form a larger, more loosely organized group
Early onset delinquency
Inherit traits that predispose them to aggressiveness. for example, violence-prone boys are emotionally negative, restless, willful and physically aggressive as early as age 2. Show subtle deficits in cognitive functioning that seem to contribute to disruptions in the development of language, memory, and cognitive and emotional self-regulation.
Late onset delinquency
Around the time of puberty, gradually increasing their involvement. their conduct problems arise from the peer context, not from biological deficits and a history of unfavorable development. Prosocial skills mastered before adolescence and abandon their antisocial ways. Few continue to engage in antisocial acts. The seriousness of their adolescent offenses seems to trap them in situations that close off opportunities for responsible behavior. Being employed or in school and forming positive, close relationships predict an end to criminal offending by age 20 to 25.
Biological aging or senescen
body structure reaches full capacity - body begins to decline in functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species
located at end of chromosomes - cap to protect the ends from destruction -shortens. so little remains that the cells no longer duplicate at all
Free radicals
naturally occurring highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen
Cross-linkage theory of aging
protein fibers that make up the bodys connective tissue forms bonds with one another when these normally separate fibers cross link tissue becomes less elastic --> many negative outcomes such as flexibility in skin, clouding in lens of eye, clogging of arteries damage to kidneys
high blood pressure 12% more in black than white population
Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body's large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels.
T cells
white blood cells originate in bone marrow and mature in the thymos - small gland in upper part of chest attack antigens directly
B cells
manufactured in bone marrow secrete antibodies in blood stream that multiply, capture antigens and permit blood systems to destroy the --> produces immunity
Basal metabolic rate
amount of energy that body uses at complete rest
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS
a syndrome involving physical and emotional symptoms occurring in the 10 days before menstruation. Symptoms include nervous tension, irritability, mastalgia, edema, and headache. Its cause is not fully understood.
Postformal thought
cognitive development beyond Piagets formal operations
Epistemic cognition
refers to our reflections on how we arrived at facts, beliefs, ideas - William Perry
Dualistic thinking
dividing information, values, authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they
Relativistic thinking
viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought. aware of a diversity of opinions on many topics they gave up the possibility of absolute truth in favor of multiple truths, each relative to its context
Commitment within relativistic thinking
formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions
Pragmatic thought
structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems - Labouvie-Vief
Cognitive-affective complexity
awareness of positive and negative feelings and coordination of them into a complex organized structure
Fantasy period
early middle childhood - children gain insight in career options by fantasizing about them
Tentative period
11-16 - period of vocational development in which adolescents think about careers in more complex ways, at first in terms of their interests and, as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements of different vocations, in terms of their abilities and values.
Realistic period
narrow option
researching opportunities that blend in with personal characteristics
general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation
Investigative person
working with ideas
Social person
real world problems and working with objects
Realistic person
real world problems and working with objects
Artistic person
emotional and high in need for individual expression
Conventional person
well structured tasks
Enterprising person
adventurous and persuasive
Emerging adulthood
transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional period
Dual cycle model
identity formation is a process of feedback loops
Personal agency
positively related to an information-gathering cognitive style and to identity diffusion. realizing the results of one's actions
exchange of ideas, information, trade, and immigration among nations
an ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change
Intimacy vs. isolation
reflection in young persons thoughts and feelings about making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner
caring for the next generation and helping to improve society
Levinson's Seasons of a Man's Life
hourly workers in industry, business executives, university, biologists and novelist. women - homemakers, business executives and university professors
followed by a stable phase during which individuals build a life structered aimed at harmonizing inner personal and outer societal demands
Life structure
underlying design of a person's life consisting of relationship with significant others - individuals, groups, institutions
image of themselves in adult world
Split dreams
marriage + carrier
facilities realization of a dream
Vaillant's Adaptation to Life
quality of relationships with important people shape the life course. 20's -devoted to intimacy concerns. 30's - career consolidation. 40's-individual achievement and become more generative. 50/60's - keeper of meaning - guardians of culture concern about values of younger generation
Keepers of meaning
guardians of culture
Social clock
the culturally preferred (Age-graded) timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Feminine social clock
marriage + parenthood early to mid twenties
Masculine social clock
entry into a high status career and advancement by late twenties
Triangular theory of love
intimacy passion and commitment
emotional component
desire for several activity
Passionate love
intense sexual attraction
Companionate love
warm, trusting affection and caregiving
Internal working model
set of expectations about attachment figures serve as a guide for close relationships
Secure attachment
warm, loving supportive parents not worried about abandonment or someone getting to close to them
Avoidant attachment
demanding, disrespectful critical parents stressed independence mistrust of love partners and anxiety about getting to close
Resistant attachment
parents who responded unpredictably and unfairly
unhappiness resulting from a gap between the social relationships we currently have and those we desire
Family life cycle
sequence of phases characterizing the development of most families around the world
Traditional marriages
clear division of husbands and wives roles - man head of household wife caring for husband and children creating a nurturing comfortable home
Egalitarian marriages
partners relates as equals sharing power and authority balance time and energy to occupations, children and relationship
Coparenting team
cooperating and showing solidarity and respect for each other in parenting roles effective child rearing practices = well developed children
not living with an intimate partner
lifestyle of unmarried couples who have sexually intimate relationship and who share a residence
Involuntarily childless
can't produce child
Voluntarily childless
don't want children
Continuous career path
completion of formal education --> retirement
Discontinuous career path
interrupted or deferred by child rearing and family needs
Role overload
conflict with work and family
adjust its focus
around age 60 lens loses its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances entirely
transparent gelatin - like substances that fills the eye
disease in which poor fluid drainage leads to a buildup of pressure within the eye, damaging the optic nerve
conditions in families and may be hereditary, most are age-related "old hearing"
outer protective layer, where new skin cells are constantly produced
middle supportive layer consisting of connective tissue that stretches and bounces back - flexibility
inner fatty layer that adds to the soft lines and shapes of the skin
midlife transition in which fertility declines
end of menstruation and reproductive capacity
Calorie restriction mimetics
agents such as natural food substances, herbs, and vigorous exercise regimens --> calorie restriction without dieting
Hot flashes
sensations of warmth accompanied by arise in body temp and redness in the face, neck and chest
Hormone therapy
Estrogen replacement therapy
surgical removal of the uterus
Hormone replacement therapy
estrogen plus progesterone
cancer caused by inherited predisposition
cancer occurring in a single cell which then multiplies
buildup of plaque in coronary arteries which encircle the heart and provide its muscles with oxygen and nutrients
Heart attack
blockage of normal blood supply to an area of the heart
irregular heartbeat
Angina pectoris
reveals an oxygen deprived heart
procedure in which a surgeon threaded a needle thin catheter into his arteries and inflated a balloon at its tip which flattened fatty deposits to allow blood to flow more freely
age related bone loss is severe
Type A behavior pattern
extreme competiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outburst and a sense of time pressure
Expressed hostility
frequent angry outbursts, rude disagreeable behavior
Problem-centered coping
knows how to deal with a problem after identifying the difficulty
Emotion-centered coping
internal and private - aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about a situation
Self efficacy
adopting, maintaining and exerting oneself in a exercise program
control commitment and challenge
Cohort effects
The effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences that make your group unique from other groups
Crystallized intelligence
abilities acquired b/c they are valued by the individual's culture
Fluid intelligence
heavily on basic information processing skills - ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli. speed of analyzing information and capacity of working memory
Perceptual speed
able to examine and compare numbers, letters, and objects quickly
Neural network view
neurons in brain, breaks in neural networks occur brain adapts by forming bypasses - new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient
Information loss view
older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the cognitive system. whole system slows down to inspect and interpret the info
resistance to interference from irrelevant information
Continuous performance tasks
pressing spacebar after particular sequences
Metacognitive knowledge
maximize performance - reviewing major points before an important presentation organizing notes and files so info can be found quickly
Practical problem solving
requires people to give up real world situations and analyze how best to achieve goals that have a high degree of uncertainty
Nontraditional student
Students who do not go directly from high school to college, but return later in life.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
generativity involves reacting out to others in ways that give to and guide next generation
Levinson's Seasons of Life
middle age person seek new ways of being both young and old
reflecting on wrongful actions in past try to leave better legacy
balance of both masculine and feminine parts of self
engagement with external world and separateness
Possible selves
future-oriented representation of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming
Self acceptance
accepting good and bad qualities
less consumed about others expectations and evaluations and more concerned with following self-chosen standards
Environmental mastery
managing a complex array of tasks easily and effectively
Parental imperative theory
identification with traditional gender roles is maintained during active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children
Big five personality traits
high - worrying, temperamental, self-conscious
low - calm, even tempered, self content and comfortable
high - affectionate, talkative, active
low - reserved, passive
Openness to experience
high - imaginative, liberal
low - ruthless, suspicious
high - soft-hearted, generous
low - ruthless, suspicious
high - hardworking, ambitious
low - disorganized
Feminization of poverty
women have to support themselves of families majority of adult population living in poverty
organizes family gathering
Valued elder
wise helpful person
Immortality through descendants
leaving two generations after death
Reinvolvement with personal past
pass family history and values to new generation
having fun with children without major child-rearing responsibilities
Skipped generation families
living without a parent
Sandwich generation
multiple generations above and below
Glass ceiling
invisible barrier to advance up the corporate ladder
Functional age
actual competence and performance health
Average life expectancy
number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health without disease or injury
Average healthy life expectancy
number of years than an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age
Life expectancy crossover
surviving members of low SES ethnic minority groups live longer than members of the white majority
Activities of daily living (ADLs)
basic self care tasks required to live on ones own such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed or chair or eating
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
tasks necessary to conduct the business of daily life - cognitive competency - telephoning, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping and paying bills
Maximum lifespan
genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
cloudy crease in the lens resulting in foggy vision could eventually lead to blindness
Macular degeneration
control vision blurs and gradually lost
Autoimmune response
immune system is more likely to malfunction by turning against normal body tissues
Assistive technology
help disabled people
Stereotype threat
diminished performance related to stereotype
Compression of morbidity
average period of diminished vigor before death to decrease public health goal
Primary aging
effects all members of our species - overall good health
Secondary aging
declines due to hereditary defects and negative environmental influences such as poor diet, lack of exercise, disease, substance abuse, environmental pollution and psych stress
weakened functioning of diverse organs and body systems. everyday competences vulnerable in the face of infection extremely hot as cold weather or an injury
deteriorating cartilage on the ends of bones of frequently used joints
Rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune response leads deformed joints and serious loss of mobility
Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
not enough insulin is produced because body cells become insensitive
set of disorders - old age - thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted
Subcortical vs. cortical dementia
Subcortical - brain regions are intact progressive damage occurs only to cerebral cortex. Cortical dementia - alzheimers disease and cerebrovascular dementia
Parkinson's disease
neurons in part of brain that controls muscle movement deteriorate - tremors, shuffling, loss of facial expression , rigidity of limbs
Alzheimer's disease
common form of dementia structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior
Neurofibrillary tangles
bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures and that contain abnormal forms of a protein called tau
abnormal form of protein
Amyloid plaques
dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells develop
runs in family
no obvious family history
blood protein that carries cholesterol throughout the body
Pseudo dementia
type of depression that appears to be dementia but isnt
a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations
Cerebrovascular dementia
series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells step by step degeneration of mental ability until each step occurring abruptly after a stroke
Selective optimization with compensation
narrowing their goals they select personally valued activities to optimize returns from their diminishing energy
State dependent memory
The theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.
a believable but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered, the 'making-up' of a memory
Implicit memory
memory without conscious awareness
Associative memory deficit
difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information
Remote memory
long term recall
Retrospective memory
remembrance of things past
Prospective memory
remembering to engage in planned actions in the future
Event based prospective memory tasks
cues to remember another action
Time based prospective memory tasks
adult must engage in an action after a certain time interval has elapsed without obvious external cue
Receptive language
learning to listen and understand language
Expressive language
the words, grammatical structures, and meanings that a person uses verbally
Verbal fluency
ability to rapidly access your mental vocabulary while talking or writing
Tip of the tongue state
certainty that they knew a word accompanied by an inability to produce it
breadth and depth of practical knowledge ability to reflect on and apply that knowledge in ways that make life bearable and worthwhile
Altruistic creativity
abundance of free thinking
Terminal decline
marked acceleration in deterioration of cognitive functioning prior to death
Ego integrity versus despair
coming to terms with ones life adults who arrive at a sense of integrity feel whole, complete and satisfied with their achievements
Peck's tasks of ego integrity
older adults to move beyond their life's work, their bodies and their separate identities
Ego differentiation
invest heavily in careers finding another way to affirm self worth through family, friendship, community life
Body transcendence
physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional and social powers
Ego transcendence
facing the reality of death constructively through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful and gratifying for younger generations
a cosmic and transcendent perspective directed forward and outward beyond the self
Laboivie-Vief's emotional expertise
emotional expertise awareness and coordination of positive emotion and dampen negative emotion
Affect optimization
ability to maximize positive emotion and dampen negative emotion
telling stories about people and events from their past and reporting associated thoughts and feelings
Life review
calling up past experiences with the goal of achieving greater self understanding
engaged in to reduce boredom and revive bitter events, is linked to adjustment problems
reminiscence directed at socail goals such as solidifying family and friendship ties and reliving relationships with lost loved ones
drawing on their past for effective problem solving strategies and for teaching younger people
Third age
65-79 time of personal fulfillment
Fourth age
brings physical decline and need for cure
Dependency-support script
dependent behaviors are attended to immediately
Independence-ignore script
independent behaviors are mostly ignored. sequences reinforced dependent behavior at the expense of independent behavior regardless of the older person's competencies
Disengagement theory
mutual withdrawal between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death
Activity theory
social barrier to engagement not the desires of elders cause declining rates of interaction - retirement, widowhood - keep busy
Continuity theory
most aging adults strive to maintain a personal systems an identity and a set of personality dispositions, interests, roles and skills - life satisfaction by ensuring consistency between past and anticipated future
Socioemotional selectivity theory
social interaction extends lifelong selection processes
Aging in place
remaining in a familiar setting where they have control over their everyday life
Congregate housing
long term cure option - support services including meals in common dining room - watchful oversight of residents with physical and mental disabilities
Life-care communities
independent or congregate housing to fall nursing home care - large initial payment guarantees elder's changing needs will be invited to help with household tasks
Green house model
blurs distinctions among nursing homes assisted living and independent living - determine daily schedules and are invited to help with household tasks
Social convoy
influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life
Secondary friends
people who are not intimate but with whom they spend time occasionally, such as a group that meets for lunch, bridge or museum tours
Elder mistreatment
abuse by family members, friends, caregivers
physical abuse - infliction of pain
physical neglect - failure to fulfill caregiver obligations
emotional abuse - verbal assaults, humiliation
sexual abuse - unwanted sexual contact
financial abuse - illegal or improper exploitation of the elders property or financial resources
Granny dumping
abandonment of elders with severe disabilities by family caregivers
Bridge jobs
new part time jobs or full time jobs or shorter duration that serve as transition between full time career and retirement
Optimal aging
aging in which gains are maximized and losses minimized.
Agonal phase
gasps and muscles spasms during the first moments in which the regular heartbeat disintegrates
Clinical death
short interval follows in which heartbeat circulation breathing and brain functioning stop but respiration is still possible
individual passes into permanent death
Brain death
irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem (Which controls reflexes)
Persistent vegetative state
which the cerebral cortex no longer registered electrical activity but the brain stem remained active
Death with dignity
an integrity we can foster by the way we communicate with and care for the dying person
Death anxiety
fear and apprehension of death
Kubler Ross theory
awakening society's sensitivity to the psychological needs of dying patients
on learning terminal illness, the person denies its seriousness - don't distort truth about condition
recognition that time is short promotes anger at having to die without having had a chance to do all one wants to do
realizing the inevitability of death, the terminally ill person attempts to bargain for extra time - making promises with family members, friends, doctors or God
denial, anger, bargaining, fail to post pone the illness person becomes depressed about the time lost of his or her life
state of peace and quiet about upcoming death, do so only in the last weeks or days
Appropriate death
one that makes sense in terms of individuals pattern of living and values and at the same time preserve or restores significant relationships and is as free of suffering as possible
comprehensive program of support services for terminally ill people and their families aims to provide a caring community sensitive to the dying persons needs so patients and family members can prepare for death in ways that are satisfying to them
Palliative, comfort care
relieves pain and other symptoms (nausea, breathing difficulties, insomia, depression) rather than prolonging life
practice of ending the life of a person suffering form incurable condition
Passive euthanasia
a life sustaining treatment is witheld or withdrawn permitting a patient to die naturally
Advance medical directive
written statement of desired medical treatment should they become incurably ill
Living will
people specify the treatments they do or do not want in care of a terminal illness, coma, or other near death situation
Durable power of attorney for health care
authorizes appointment of another person to make health care decisions on one's behalf
Voluntary active euthanasia
doctors or others act directly to end suffering before a natural end to life
Assisted suicide
experience of losing a loved one by death
intense physical and psychological distress
specified expression of the bereaved persons thoughts and feelings
shock followed by disbelief - hours to weeks
reality of the death, grief is most intense
reorganizing daily life without the loved one
Four tasks of grieving
Dual-process model of coping with loss
effective coping requires people to oscillate between declining with emotional consequences of loss and attending to life changes
Anticipatory grieving
acknowledging that the loss is inevitable and preparing emotionally for it
Bereavement overload
persons experiences several deaths at once or in close succession