APWH Unit 5
Terms in this set (80)
vasco da gama
first explorer to reach Indian Ocean from Portugal. Made 1000% profit.
volta do mar
Strategy used by Portuguese mariners to sail farther out into ocean until you caught a wind. (faster and safer)
Prince of Portugal who greatly influenced exploration. Created school of navigation and sponsored voyages down W African coast.
Italian explorer who wanted to sail to Asia from Western route. Sponsored by Spain. Reached Americas not Asia.
First to circumnavigate the world.
English pirateer who was the 2nd to circumnavigate the world.
English explorer who explored Pacific. Completed map of world with Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, etc.
Many islands conquered by the Spanish. Port city of Manila was created here.
Indonesian island used by Dutch. Focused on spice trade.
Northeast Eurasia. Attraction was fur.
Seven Years War
Global conflict over trade and territorial competition. Resulted in British hegemony in the world. (French & Indian War)
Global spread of diseases, plants, food crops, animals, and human populations. Worst problem was disease.
Theological professor and German monk who was against the sale of indulgences. Attacked Roman Catholic Church for many issues.
King of England who had conflict with pope over divorce. Removed England from Roman Catholic Church and created his own that he was the pope of.
French lawyer who was a Protestant Christian. Made Protestant community with code of discipline and morality.
Members of society of Jesus. Well educated and good missionaries. Founded universities.
People believed bad things happened bc of witches, so they began killing them. Most were poor, old, widowed women.
Philip II of Spain sent ships of men to England to force them to return to Catholic Church and dethrone Queen Elizabeth, but failed.
Thirty Years War
World war over religious, political, and economic differences. Most destructive European conflict yet. Damaged economies and societies.
Mission to abolish Judaism, Islam, and heresy founded by Isabel and Ferdanand. Hung, burned, imprisoned, and forced many into silence.
English Civil War
War between King Charles & nobles and Cromwell & puritans (parliament) over religious and political affairs. Puritans won and made Cromwell king.
England became a dictatorship after English Civil War, making parliament reestablish monarchy. Kings would now rule in cooperation with parliament.
Church official who worked to increase king's power and destroy noble's power. Created bureaucracy of common people loyal to the king.
"Sun king" Created Versailles. Wanted to become absolute monarch and tries to decrease noble's power.
Royal hunting lodge made into a palace by Louis XIV. Nobles lived there and were entertained so Louis could keep an eye on them.
Peter the Great
Prince in Russia who modernized Russia. Used Europe as a model for administration, military, and even social life.
Market driven economy; economy when private parties make goods available on a free market for profit. Business choices aren't made by government.
System made by entrepreneurs. Gave raw material to countryside homes, people at homes would finish it, they would get paid, and entrepreneurs would sell it.
Peasants forced to live on land as serfs and provide labor. Supported capitalism by creating raw materials.
Greek scholar who thought Earth was the center of the universe (geocentric model). Became accepted model for a very long time.
Scientist who said planets revolved around sun.
Justified Copernicus's theory with observations from telescope. Writes "Starry Messenger" that makes the church mad.
Mathematician who used observation and mathematical reasoning to explain and understand. Created physics and laws of motion and gravity. Sets stage for science.
Time of new thinking. People who wanted to create laws for society based on reasoning and observation, not traditions.
Philosopher who worked to create law of politics. Created natural rights (life, liberty, property) and constitutional government.
Studied capitalism and created economics and laws of supply and demand.
Created separation of powers in government (legislative, judicial, executive) and checks and balances.
Created idea of implied social contract; all rulers had to rule for the people, or people could revolt.
Created 1st amendment. Wrote many witty writings. Disagreed with French monarchy and Roman Catholic Church. Wanted individual freedom.
Religion that believed there was a god who created the world, but didn't participate in affairs. Didn't believe in Christianity.
Parties held by socially prominent women where philosophers, intellectuals, and scientists discussed ideas.
Land grant given to Spanish citizens that gave them the right to make Taino work on their fields if they lived on that land. Had to provide welfare for the workers.
Led Spanish soldiers to Mexico. Tried to take Aztec capital, but were defeated. Then went back with siege and forced city to surrender with help from indigenous people.
Led Spanish to conquer Inca. Took advantage of civil war going on and took capital at Cuzco by killing most elites.
Appointed by the king of Spain to govern the new land in Mexico and Peru. Watched by audiences so they wouldn't gain too much power.
Estates that produced goods and food for own use and sale on markets. Used encomienda and debt penage system for labor.
Tupac Amaru II
Inca ruler who led native rebellion against the Spanish. Him and his whole family were killed.
Anything referring to the sugar mill. Was both agricultural and industrial. Planters, owners, and slaves had to be knowledgable.
People who had little future in Europe, so they gave 4-7yrs labor for a new life in the Americas; not slaves for life.
Empire that replaced Mali under the rule of Sunni Ali. Capital was Gao.
City-states in Africa that were conquered by Portuguese.
Trading kingdom in Africa where slaves were traded (alliances with Portuguese)
Area ruled by regional kingdoms. Began interacting with Europeans who then established settlements there.
Dona Beatric said she was possessed by St. Anthony, Jesus was black, and Kongo was holy land. She worked miracles.
Strict Muslims who spread Islam in the countryside with schools and states.
Slave trade with voyages of three legs. (Euro goods to Africa for slaves, slaves to Africa to make sugar that would go back to Europe)
Slaves spread across the world (Brazil, Mediterranean, North America, Caribbean)
Dynasty founded by Hongwu that replaced the Yuan Dynasty. Used mandarins and eunuchs to govern.
Dynasty created by Manchus. Brought back traditional values like Confucianism and the civil service exam.
Tall, long defense wall created by the Ming dynasty. First wall fell to ruins, so they made another one.
Pastoral nomads who created Qing dynasty. Had a good military and Chinese supported their leadership.
Emperor in Qing dynasty. Ruled with Confucian values.
Emperor during Qing's high pt. China was extremely wealthy during his rule (cancelled tax collections)
Civil Service Exam
Test to determine government jobs in China. Was very hard, wrote 8 essays in plain room for 2 days and 3 nights. Enabled social mobility bc exam was available to anyone.
Military governor who unified Japan. Created bakufu that governed and decreased power of the emperor.
Military governors who ruled Japan. Their goal was to stabilize realm and prevent civil war. Made many policies for daimyo to follow.
Nobles in Japan. Were controlled by shogun (required to live in Edo/Tokugawa court every other year, arranged marriage, etc.)
New Confucianism that was promoted by Japanese shoguns, but later rejected (they were Chinese ideas)
Muslim empire in Turkey. Capital was Istanbul. Had a good military of slaved troops.
Ruled during climax of Ottoman. Promoted expansion and created strong naval power.
Muslim empire in Persia (Iran) created by Shah Ismail. Were shiites and believed their form of Islam is only (Twelver Shiism)
Religion of Safavids. Believed there were 12 imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad. Believe 12th imam is still alive and will come back.
Battle of Chaldiran
Sunni Ottomans vs. Shiite Safavids. Safavids refused to use firearms and were totally destroyed.
Brought back Safavid after Battle of Chaldiran. Moved capital, encouraged trade, reformed administration and military.
"the tiger" Created Mughal Empire in India. Said he was descent of Genghis and Tamerlame.
Greatest ruler of Mughal Empire. Babur's grandson. Strictly enforced rule. Created Divine Faith to get rid of religious tolerances between Hindus and Muslims.
Religion created by Akbar to combine faiths and unify religions in Mughal. Drew a lot from Islam and emphasized loyalty to emperor.
Huge marble mosque and tomb created in Mughal for Shah Jahan's wife who died giving labor.
Emperor who had the Taj Mahal and peacock throne made.
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