36 terms

Pharmacology Exam 2- Weeks 5-7- Pain

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what is pain caused by?
stimulation of pain receptors
-sensory nerve endings found in most tissues
-stimulated by thermal, chemical, physical means
-chemicals include prostaglandins
-pain receptors
nociceptors
-level of stimulation required for individual to perceive pain
-stimulation of nerve endings send message to brain
pain threshold
-send signals to brain and CNS
-conduct pain impulses
afferent fibers
-each spinal nerve conducts pain from specific part of body
-like a fuse box
-allows us to determine site of damage after spinal cord injury
dermatome
-reflex response back to muscles that initiates movement away from source of pain
-slower impulses for chronic pain
efferent fibers
-brain stem
-location and characteristics of pain are perceived here
reticular formation
-when aroused, influences brain's awareness of pain
-many drugs work by depressing this
reticular activating system
what do interneurons release within CNS?
opiate like chemicals called opioids
what do interneurons do?
block conduction of pain impulses
what do interneurons resemble?
morphine, endorphins, endogenous morphine
what increases endorphin release
serotonin
three main pain receptors
mu, kappa, delta
if you have a decreased amount of Mu receptors, what does this mean?
feel pain quicker
why does a patient report high pain number?
decreased pain receptors
pain perception and emotional well being is linked to what?
mu receptors
if you have a high number of pain receptors, pain sensitivity is __________
diminished
do you have a high or low pain tolerance if you have a high pain receptor amount
high
ability to withstand pain or intensity before an individual takes action
pain tolerance
pain tolerance is increased by what 3 things?
1. diversion
2. rest
3. medications
what two things is pain tolerance decreased by?
1. fatigue
2. stress
what are some causes of pain?
1. inflammation
2. infection
3. ischemia
4. stretching of tissue, tendons, ligaments
5. joint capsule stretching
6. burns
7. muscle spasms
8. neuropathy
decreased oxygen to given area
ischemia
example of ischemia
PAD-peripheral arterial disease which is common in those w/ diabetes
signs and symptoms of pain
-pallor
-sweating
-high BP, tachycardia
-nausea
-vomiting
-fainting
-dizziness
-anxiety
-fear
-clenched fist or rigid face
-restlessness or constant motion
signs and symptoms of acute pain
-nausea
-vomiting
-faint
-dizzy
-anxiety
-fear
pain assessment
O- onset
L-location
D-duration
C-Characteristics
A- aggravates- what makes it worse
R- relieves- what makes it better
T- timing
S- severity- 0 to 10
describe visceral pain
-inside organs
-organs in thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
-sensitive to stretch, dissension, inflammation, ischemia
-characteristics: cramping, squeezing, pressire, dull, deep
-pain perceived at site distant from source
-heart attack
-gas pain
referred pain
why does referred pain occur?
multiple sensory fibers from different sources connecting at single level of spinal cord
describe somatic pain(nociceptive)
-bones, muscles, tendons
-aching, throbbing, constant, dull
describe neuropathic pain
not nociceptive
-caused by trauma or disease involving peripheral nerves
-burning, knife like, numbness
-tingling
-shock like
-radiating
type of pain where...
-pain occurs in lost limb
-doesn't resolve to usual pain therapies
-more likely to occur if ind. have history of prolonged or severe chronic pain prior to surgery
phantom pain
profound loss of blood flow to organs or tissues
ischemic pain
pain with...
-sudden onset
-usually subsides once treated
-lasts less than 6 months
acute
pain with...
-persistence and recurrence
-lasts more than 6 months
-often difficult to treat
chronic
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