Pharmacology Exam 2- Weeks 5-7- Pain
Terms in this set (...)
what is pain caused by?
stimulation of pain receptors
-sensory nerve endings found in most tissues
-stimulated by thermal, chemical, physical means
-chemicals include prostaglandins
-level of stimulation required for individual to perceive pain
-stimulation of nerve endings send message to brain
-send signals to brain and CNS
-conduct pain impulses
-each spinal nerve conducts pain from specific part of body
-like a fuse box
-allows us to determine site of damage after spinal cord injury
-reflex response back to muscles that initiates movement away from source of pain
-slower impulses for chronic pain
-location and characteristics of pain are perceived here
-when aroused, influences brain's awareness of pain
-many drugs work by depressing this
reticular activating system
what do interneurons release within CNS?
opiate like chemicals called opioids
what do interneurons do?
block conduction of pain impulses
what do interneurons resemble?
morphine, endorphins, endogenous morphine
what increases endorphin release
three main pain receptors
mu, kappa, delta
if you have a decreased amount of Mu receptors, what does this mean?
feel pain quicker
why does a patient report high pain number?
decreased pain receptors
pain perception and emotional well being is linked to what?
if you have a high number of pain receptors, pain sensitivity is __________
do you have a high or low pain tolerance if you have a high pain receptor amount
ability to withstand pain or intensity before an individual takes action
pain tolerance is increased by what 3 things?
what two things is pain tolerance decreased by?
what are some causes of pain?
4. stretching of tissue, tendons, ligaments
5. joint capsule stretching
7. muscle spasms
decreased oxygen to given area
example of ischemia
PAD-peripheral arterial disease which is common in those w/ diabetes
signs and symptoms of pain
-high BP, tachycardia
-clenched fist or rigid face
-restlessness or constant motion
signs and symptoms of acute pain
A- aggravates- what makes it worse
R- relieves- what makes it better
S- severity- 0 to 10
describe visceral pain
-organs in thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
-sensitive to stretch, dissension, inflammation, ischemia
-characteristics: cramping, squeezing, pressire, dull, deep
-pain perceived at site distant from source
why does referred pain occur?
multiple sensory fibers from different sources connecting at single level of spinal cord
describe somatic pain(nociceptive)
-bones, muscles, tendons
-aching, throbbing, constant, dull
describe neuropathic pain
-caused by trauma or disease involving peripheral nerves
-burning, knife like, numbness
type of pain where...
-pain occurs in lost limb
-doesn't resolve to usual pain therapies
-more likely to occur if ind. have history of prolonged or severe chronic pain prior to surgery
profound loss of blood flow to organs or tissues
-usually subsides once treated
-lasts less than 6 months
-persistence and recurrence
-lasts more than 6 months
-often difficult to treat
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