20 terms

LING 391 Test 1


Terms in this set (...)

oral vs nasal stop (include details of production stages)
If the soft palate is down so that air can still go out through the nose, this is said to be a nasal stop. If, in addition to the articulatory closure in the mouth, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, then the airstream will be completely obstructed, the pressure in the mouth will be built up, and an oral stop will be formed.
glottalic egressive
indicated by an apostrophe following stop symbol
closed glottis, voiceless only
[p' , t' , k']
glottal ingressive
glottis is lowered, drawing air in the vocal tract downwards - vibration of vocal cords
[ b, d, g]
velaric ingressive
dual closure in oral tract- one velar and one forward of the velum- trapping body of air
Homorganic Stops
same/shared place of articulation
Unreleased Stops
stops in final position
no audible release stage, articulators remain in contact
Nasal release of stops ('sadden')
Lateral release of stops ('badly')
Aspirated versus unaspirated voiceless stop
Broad versus narrow transcription
Is the aspiration of voiceless stops in English predictable? Explain and give examples
Yes, it is predictable which one is going to be aspirated because you have to have a burst of air for words that begin with p,t,c
Can aspiration be predicted in Thai?
fig 1, p 22
How do voiced stops affect preceding vowels ('beat' and 'bead')?
at the end, d and t sound fairly similar (voiceless)
voiced stops will lengthen vowel
How does an interdental fricative affect the pronunciation of a preceding alveolar sound?
th, v are interdental fricative
an interdental fricative dentalizes a preceding alveolar sound
the alveolar becomes a dental sound
What is a glottal stop? Is the distribution of glottal stops predictable in Cockney English? Explain and exemplify
a consonant formed by the audible release of the airstream after complete closure of the glottis

yes, a glottal stop is predictable because ???
The distinction between /t/ and /d/ is lost in certain distributions:explain the flapping rule for Standard American English
consonant morpheme /t/ or /d/ placed between vowels is pronounced as a voiced flap

some instances effect of replacement of a 't' sound and a 'd' sound

In fact, /t/ and sometimes /d/ are pronounced in such positions as an alveolar flap [ɾ], a sound produced by briefly tapping the alveolar ridge with the tongue
airstream mechanism
method by which airflow is created in the vocal tract
state of vocal cords
folds of tissue in the throat that are key in creating sounds through vocalization

vibrate for speech or singing
state of velum
The state of the velum can attribute whether a sound is nasal or oral. It is nasal when the velum is lowered, causing the air to escape through the nasal cavity. On the other hand, sounds are oral when the velum is raised, blocking the nasal cavity.
manner of articulation
the degree of constriction involved in producing sounds, or how close both articulators are to each other

three degrees of constriction: complete closure, close approximation, open approximation