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7 characteristics of civilization

1. cities
2. writing and record keeping
3. specialized jobs
4. complex technologies
5. central government
6. highly organized religion
7. social classes

population growth

1. invention of iron
2. farming and pastoral nomadism
3. improved species of plants
4. horses and camels
5. people lived in denser populations

consequences of population growth

1. deforestation
2. more complex societies
3. collective learning increased
4. more people began to live in big cities

network of exchange

a web of connections through which people, goods or ideas circulate

examples of networks of exchange

1. routes
2. empires
3. writing
4. religion


a state that unites many territories and diverse peoples under one ruler or gvt.

world religion

a belief system that embraces people of different languages and cultural tradition

religions that spread in big era 4

1. christianity
2. judaism
3. Buddhism
4. Christianity

2 key developments of big era 4

population growth and expanding networks of exchange

what did domestication of animals lead to?

farming which lead to a surplus of food which lead to specialized jobs


a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)

What developed in big era 3?


why was language important?

we could exchange thoughts and ideas, add to ideas of previous generations

What happened in Big era 1?


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