What were the environmental challenges of Mesopotamia?
2. no natural barriers
3. limited natural resources
Where was the fertile crescent?
the desert located in between the persian gulf and the Mediterranean sea
What was Hammurabi's code?
a uniform code of laws to help unify the diverse groups within the empire
How did they fix their environmental problems?
1. dug irrigation ditches
2. they built a defence wall out of mud brick
3. they traded things for resources
-> led to organization, cooperation
What were the environmental challenges of Egypt?
1. if the flood water was too low, then there was no water for the crops, if it was too high, then it ruined houses
2. the amount of non- desert land was too small, so people had to live in really small areas
What was the significance of the pyramids?
they reflected the strength of Egyptian civilizations
the Pharaohs were buried in them after death
Who were the most important gods/ goddesses?
Re -> sun god
Osiris -> god of the dead
Iris -> ideal mother and wife
What were Egypt's Social classes?
Kings, Queens, Royal families
Land owners, government officials, priests, army commanders
Merchants and Artisans
Peasant farmers and laborers
What were the advantages of farming
provided people with more food
don't have to hunt mammals
forage for roots
chew hides to soften to use for clothing
didn't have to build houses
kept possessions as they wished
what were the dis-advantages of farming?
got diseases from living too close to animals
not enough variety of food
crops could die and you could end up with nothing
remained in one place -> relied on weather, diseases stayed with them
resulted in gender inequality
worked much longer -> less fun time
What were the advantages of hunter- gatherers?
they had more free time because of surplus of food
varied plants/ animals -> healthier diets
moved seasonally from camp to camp
women were not tied to their homes
they were not classified by what they had
What were the dis advantages of hunter/ gatherers?
little opportunity to keep their things
fewer pregnancies (small families)
What was a major difference between mesopotamia and egypt?
egypt had a good view of the after life, Sumerians did not.
What did the egyptian and mesopotamia society have in common?
they were both established on large rivers
Why was living on a river good for cilvilizations?
1. river travel
2. provided with water
3. fertile land to grow crops