a uniform code of laws to help unify the diverse groups within the empire
what was a geographical advantage for living in Mesopotamia?
provided amazing farming
How did they fix their environmental problems?
1. dug irrigation ditches 2. they built a defence wall out of mud brick 3. they traded things for resources -> led to organization, cooperation
What did the Sumarians believe about gods?
they did the same things as humans
what was the gift of the nile?
the floods brought water to the nile
What were the environmental challenges of Egypt?
1. if the flood water was too low, then there was no water for the crops, if it was too high, then it ruined houses 2. the amount of non- desert land was too small, so people had to live in really small areas
What did the people think of the Pharaohs?
They thought of them as gods
What was the significance of the pyramids?
they reflected the strength of Egyptian civilizations the Pharaohs were buried in them after death
Why was the river good?
it provided river travel
What was the religion like in Egypt?
They were polytheistic and worshipped more than 2,000 gods.
What did the Egyptians create?
Calender, system of counting and medicine
Who were the most important gods/ goddesses?
Re -> sun god Osiris -> god of the dead Iris -> ideal mother and wife
What were Egypt's Social classes?
Kings, Queens, Royal families
Land owners, government officials, priests, army commanders
Merchants and Artisans
Peasant farmers and laborers
Who was Hatshepsut?
girl Pharaoh who encouraged trade
Who was Thutmose?
Hatshepsut's stepson, war like ruler
What were the advantages of farming
provided people with more food don't have to hunt mammals forage for roots chew hides to soften to use for clothing didn't have to build houses kept possessions as they wished
what were the dis-advantages of farming?
got diseases from living too close to animals not enough variety of food crops could die and you could end up with nothing remained in one place -> relied on weather, diseases stayed with them resulted in gender inequality worked much longer -> less fun time
What were the advantages of hunter- gatherers?
they had more free time because of surplus of food varied plants/ animals -> healthier diets moved seasonally from camp to camp women were not tied to their homes they were not classified by what they had
What were the dis advantages of hunter/ gatherers?
little opportunity to keep their things fewer pregnancies (small families)
What was cuneiform?
system of writing
What was a major difference between mesopotamia and egypt?
egypt had a good view of the after life, Sumerians did not.
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
What did the egyptian and mesopotamia society have in common?
they were both established on large rivers
Why was living on a river good for cilvilizations?
1. river travel 2. provided with water 3. fertile land to grow crops
Why was the agricultural revolution a turning point in history?