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What were the environmental challenges of Mesopotamia?

1.unpredictable flooding
2. no natural barriers
3. limited natural resources

Where was the fertile crescent?

the desert located in between the persian gulf and the Mediterranean sea

What was the religion like in Mesopotamia?

they had polytheism


belief in many gods

what were the social classes in Mesopotamia?

kings, landholders, preists

Who was Sargon?

he created the first empire

What was Hammurabi's code?

a uniform code of laws to help unify the diverse groups within the empire

what was a geographical advantage for living in Mesopotamia?

provided amazing farming

How did they fix their environmental problems?

1. dug irrigation ditches
2. they built a defence wall out of mud brick
3. they traded things for resources
-> led to organization, cooperation

What did the Sumarians believe about gods?

they did the same things as humans

what was the gift of the nile?

the floods brought water to the nile

What were the environmental challenges of Egypt?

1. if the flood water was too low, then there was no water for the crops, if it was too high, then it ruined houses
2. the amount of non- desert land was too small, so people had to live in really small areas

What did the people think of the Pharaohs?

They thought of them as gods

What was the significance of the pyramids?

they reflected the strength of Egyptian civilizations
the Pharaohs were buried in them after death

Why was the river good?

it provided river travel

What was the religion like in Egypt?

They were polytheistic and worshipped more than 2,000 gods.

What did the Egyptians create?

Calender, system of counting and medicine

Who were the most important gods/ goddesses?

Re -> sun god
Osiris -> god of the dead
Iris -> ideal mother and wife

What were Egypt's Social classes?

Kings, Queens, Royal families

Land owners, government officials, priests, army commanders

Merchants and Artisans

Peasant farmers and laborers

Who was Hatshepsut?

girl Pharaoh who encouraged trade

Who was Thutmose?

Hatshepsut's stepson, war like ruler

What were the advantages of farming

provided people with more food
don't have to hunt mammals
forage for roots
chew hides to soften to use for clothing
didn't have to build houses
kept possessions as they wished

what were the dis-advantages of farming?

got diseases from living too close to animals
not enough variety of food
crops could die and you could end up with nothing
remained in one place -> relied on weather, diseases stayed with them
resulted in gender inequality
worked much longer -> less fun time

What were the advantages of hunter- gatherers?

they had more free time because of surplus of food
varied plants/ animals -> healthier diets
moved seasonally from camp to camp
women were not tied to their homes
they were not classified by what they had

What were the dis advantages of hunter/ gatherers?

little opportunity to keep their things
fewer pregnancies (small families)

What was cuneiform?

system of writing

What was a major difference between mesopotamia and egypt?

egypt had a good view of the after life, Sumerians did not.

cultural diffusion

The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another

What did the egyptian and mesopotamia society have in common?

they were both established on large rivers

Why was living on a river good for cilvilizations?

1. river travel
2. provided with water
3. fertile land to grow crops

Why was the agricultural revolution a turning point in history?

farming -> surplus -> job specilization -> gvt. builidings, law, technology... -> CIVILIZATION!!!

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