129 terms

cardiovascular system test

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blood vessels allow blood to...
circulate to all parts of the body
Functions of the cardiovascular system
transports oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones to and from the cells
Where is the heart located?
Mediastinum of the thoracic cavity
apex
directed toward left hip and rests on diaphragm
base
where great vessels emerge; points toward right shoulder and lies under 2nd rib
What is the pericardium composed of?
fibrous pericardium, serous membrane (parietal and visceral)
What is the pericardium?
double walled sac the encloses the heart
fibrous pericardium
loose and superficial; protects heart and anchors it to the diaphragm and sternum
serous membrane
deep to fibrous pericardium and composed of parietal and visceral pericardium
parietal pericardium
outside layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium
visceral pericardium
next to the hear (AKA epicardium)
pericardial cavity
Between the layers of the pericardium where serous fluid fills
Walls of the heart
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardium
outside layer of heart wall (aka visceral pericardium)
myocardium
middle layer; cardiac muscle
endocardium
inner layer; lines heart chambers
The atria are the
receiving chambers
the ventricles are the
discharging chambers
Blood enters under ___ pressure in the atria
low
The left ventricle forms the
apex
interatrial septum
separates atria
intraventricular septum
separates the two ventricles
Arteries pump blood -
away from the heart
Veins pump blood -
towards the heart
Explain the term "double pump"
the right side of the heart works as the pulmonary circuit pump and the left side works as the systemic circuit pump
pulmonary circulation (function)
flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary circulation process
blood is pumped out of the right ventricle through the pulmonary trunk, which splits into the pulmonary arteries and takes O2 poor blood to the lungs. the O2 right blood returns to the heart via pulmonary veins
systemic circulation
oxygen rich blood is returned to the left side of the heart and is pumped out the aorta and to the rest of the body; oxygen poor blood returns to the right atrium via systemic veins, which empty blood into the superior and inferior vena cava
Left left ventricle has thicker walls. Why?
it has to pump blood to the entire body through the systemic circuit
location of aorta
location of superior vena cava
location of pulmonary semilunar valve
location of left pulmonary veins
location of pulmonary trunk
location of right ventricle
overall function of valves
allows blood to flow in only one direction to prevent back flor
atrioventricular valves
between atria and ventricles; consists of bicuspid (mitral) and tricuspid
bicuspid valve
two flaps of endocardium
tricuspid
three cusps
semilunar valves
between ventricle and artery; consists of pulmonary and aortic
chordae tendineae
anchor the cusps to the walls of the ventricles
What happens to the cusps when the heart is relaxed?
the av valves hang open allowing blood to flow into ventricles
what valves are OPEN during ventricular contraction?
semilunar valves
coronary arteries
branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
cardiac veins
drain the myocardium of blood
angina pectoris
chest pain that results when the myocardium does not get enough oxygen
myocardial infarction
dead tissue in myocardium, therefore the heart cannot pump properly or at all. this is a heart attack.
Location of SA node
right atrium
location of AV node
floor of right atrium
location of purkinje fibers
walls of ventricles
Bundle of His (AV bundle)
in the interventricular septum
describe the progression of the heartbeat impulse
The sinoatrial node (SA node) starts each heartbeat. The impulse then spreads through the right artia to the AV node. The atria start to contract, and at the AV node the impulse is delayed a little bit to give the artia time to contract. The impulse then travels to the AV bundle, the bundle branches, then the purkinje fibers. This allows ventricles to contract and eject blood from the heart
In an ECG, what is the meaning of the "P" wave?
atrial depolarization
ischemia
lack of adequate blood supply to the heart muscle
fibrillation
uncontrolled quivering or twitching of the heart muscle; makes the heart unable to pump
AED
automated external defibrillator
Veins are more ______ than arteries.
superficial; they are the ones that bleed when we get a paper cut
tachycardia
rapid heart rate; over 100 BPM
Bradycardia
slow heart rate; less than 60 BPM
systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
the cardiac cycle refers to
one complete heartbeat
cardiac cycle length is normally
0.8 seconds
Average heart rate is about ___ BPM
75
atrial diastole
the heart is relaxed, the pressure is low, AV vales are open, but semilunar valves are closed. the heart is filling w/ blood
atrial systole
ventricles remain in diastole, but the atria contract. blood is forced into the ventricles to complete ventricular filling
isovolumetric contraction
atrial systole ends and ventricular systole begins. inter-ventricular pressure rises and the AV valves close to prevent back flow. for a moment, the ventricles are completely closed chambers
ventricle systole
ventricles continue to contract; intraventricular pressure now surpasses the pressure in the major arteries leaving the heart; the SL Valves open and blood is ejected out from ventricles. atria are relaxed and start filling w/ blood
isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular diastole begins; pressure falls below that in the major arteries and semilunar valves close; for another moment ventricles are closed chambers; when atrial pressure increases above intraventricule pressure, the AV valves will open again
lub
longer; closing of AV valves
dup
shorter; closing of semilunar valves
blood vessels form a
closed vascular system that transports blood to the tissues and back to the heart
vessels that carry blood away from heart
arteries and arterioles
vessels that play a role in exchanges between tissues and blood
capillaries
Vessels that return blood toward the heart
venules and veins
What are the three layers in blood vessels?
tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
tunica intima
forms a friction-reducing lining; endothelium
tunica media
smooth muscle; middle layer; controlled by sympathetic nervous system
tunica externa
mostly fibrous connective tissue; outermost layer
What has a stronger tunica media? Arteries or veins?
Arteries. they have to pump blood away from the heart and to the whole body
Veins operate under -
low pressure
Lumen of veins is -
larger than that of arteries
capillaries
only one cell layer thick (tunica intima); allow for exchanges between blood and tissue
capillaries form networks called
capillary beds
blood flow through a capillary bed is called...
microcirculation
varicose veins
pooling of blood in the feet and legs; veins become twisted; happens when people stand for too long
parts of the aorta
ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta
aorta
Largest artery in the body; leaves from the left ventricle
What are the branches of the aortic arch?
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
right subclavian artery location
left subclavian artery location
axillary artery
right carotid artery
left carotid artery
brachiocephalic trunk
What comes off of the brachiocephalic trunk?
right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery
What comes off of the left common carotid artery?
left internal and external carotid arteries
What comes off of the subclavian artery?
axillary artery, brachial artery, and the radial and ulnar arteries
Superior vena cava drains...
head and arms
inferior vena cava drains...
lower body
What veins drain into the superior vena cava?
radial and ulnar, brachial, axillary vein, cephalic vein, basilic and cubital vein
Veins that drain into the IVC
subclavian, vertebral vein, internal jugular vein, brachiocephalic vein
Vital signs
measurements of arterial pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature
arterial pulse
alternate expansion and recoil of an artery (blood vessel wall); pressure increases and pressure decreases
What is blood pressure?
force of blood against arterial walls
when is blood pressure lowest?
when it reaches the veins
pressure from highest to lowest in vessels (blood pressure gradient)
arteries (then arterioles), capillaries, (then venules), veins
hypotension
low blood pressure; below 100
hypertension
high BP; above 140; people might need to make modifications in their diet
What is average blood pressure?
120/80 mmHg
systolic blood pressure
pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction
diastolic pressure
when ventricles relax
auscultatory method
an indirect method of measuring systemic arterial blood pressure
systolic pressure ranges from
110-140
diastolic pressure ranges from
70-80
Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)
friction blood encounters as it first flows through the vessel
An increased peripheral resistance leads to
an increased BP
capillary exchange of gases and nutrients
Substances move to and from the blood and tissue cells through capillary walls
interstitial fluid
fluid between cells
exchange of gases is due to
concentration gradients
routes for substances entering or leaving blood
direct diffusion through membranes; diffusion through clefts; diffusion through pores; transport via vesicles
blood pressure
forces fluid and solutes out of capillaries
osmotic pressure
draws fluid into capillaries
Blood pressure is ___ than osmotic pressure at the arterial end of the capillary bed
higher
blood pressure is _____ than osmotic pressure at the arterial end of the capillary bed
lower
osmotic pressure is in the
veins
blood pressure is in the
arteries
fetal circulation
the baby doesn't need to directly breathe, therefore the right atrium doesn't need to go to the lungs
Age-related problems associated with the cardiovascular system
weakening of venous valves; varicose veins; hypertension resulting from loss of elasticity of vessels; coronary artery disease resulting from diet