68 terms

GeoSci Exam 2

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The Coriolis effect plays a role in which of the following:
a. Deflection of wind to the left in the N. Hemisphere
b. Deflection of ocean currents to the left in the S. Hemisphere
c. Trade winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
d. Formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
e. all but A
E
Which statement is/are true about global wind patterns?
a. Low pressure develops at 30 deg N and 30 deg S
b. Easterly winds between the Equator and 30 deg N are caused by winds that blow south and are deflected by the Coriolis effect
c. High pressure develops over the equator because of rising air
d. Winds blow directly from the equator to the poles along the surface in one large convection cell
e. All of the above
B
Which statement is/are true about the Coriolis effect?
a. It deflects wind and ocean currents to the right in the N. hemisphere
b. It deflects wind and ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
c. Is is part of the reason for Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemisphere
d. It is part of the reason for large-scale ocean currents called gyres
e. All of the above
E
Hurricanes are fueled by latent heat release in the upper atmosphere
True
The oceans transport sensible and latent heat, and this transport plays a role in determining Earth's global temperature distribution.
True
Phytoplankton are small animals that live in the aphotic zone and are an important source of inorganic energy for nearly all ocean life
False
The following are examples of organic matter.
a. Phytoplankton
b. Apples
c. Whales.
d. All of the above
e. None
D
The tropic pyramid tells us that to grow 1 kg of a top level predator- consumer such as tuna:
a. It takes 10 kg of sunlight
b. It takes 10kg of phytoplankton
c. It takes 100kg of seawater
d. It takes 10,000kg of sunlight
e. It takes 10,000kg of phytoplankton
E
Marine phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms. In the photic zone of the ocean their growth rate is often limited by:
a. availability of nutrients
b. availability of oxygen
c. availability of water
d. availability of CO2
e. A and B
E
Phytoplankton production is often very high in the open ocean because of rapid upward mixing of deeper waters into the photic zone.
False
Which of the following is/are true:
a. Ocean deep water is rich in nutrients that are essential to phytoplankton growth
b. Deep water normally flows up into the photic zone in the open ocean
c. Phytoplankton growth rate in polar regions is the same all year round.
d. B and C
A
World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scale fishing techniques will likely allow fish catch to increase in another 50 years.
F
Baleen Whales migrate large distances to feast on plankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas when conditions are optimum for growth of dinoflagellates
T
Red Tide
a. Typically last from 3 to 4 months
b. Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
c. Occur mainly during the winter
d. Are normally caused by wind
e. All but A
B
The energy cycle of life in the ocean involves plankton, which convert sun light to organic matter (food). Organic matter is eventually broken down by bacteria and other organisms. This recycles the nutrients for further plankton growth.
T
The Coriolis effect causes objects in motion to veer off their initial trajectories. Which is true?
a. Objects are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere
b. Objects are deflected to the left in the northern hemisphere
c. Winds blowing from south to north in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the east.
d. Winds blowing from south to north in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the west.
e. A and C
E
The Coriolis effect: Which is true?
a. Winds blowing to the south in the southern hemisphere are deflected to the east
b. Winds blowing to the north in the southern hemisphere are deflected to the west
c. Winds blowing to the north in the southern hemisphere just so straight
d. A and B
e. None
D
Which statement is true about global wind patterns?
a. Low pressure develops at 30N and 30S
b. Easterly winds between the equator and 30N are caused by surface winds that blow south and are deflected by the Coriolis effect
c. High pressure develops over the equator because of rising air
d. Winds blow directly from the equator to the poles along the surface in one large convection cell
e. All of the above
B
In Earth's southern hemisphere:
a. Western boundary currents in the ocean bring warm water southward
b. Winds rotate clockwise around low pressure systems
c. Winds only blow from north to south
d. Circulation in large scale oceanic gyres in clockwise
e. A and B
E
The Coriolis effect causes objects in motion to veer off their initial trajectories. Which is true?
a. Objects are deflected to the left in the southern hemisphere
b. Objects are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere
c. Winds blowing from south to north in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the east.
d. Winds blowing from south to north in the southern hemisphere are deflected to the west.
e. All of the above
E
Which is true?
a. Winds blowing to the south in the Southern hemisphere are deflected to the east.
b. Large scale Gyres in the ocean are surface currents that are not affected by the Coriolis effect.
d. Western boundary currents are fast and narrow because of variations in the Coriolis effect with latitude
e. All but B
E
For Oceanic Gyres, which is true?
a. Circulation is clockwise in the southern hemisphere
b. The salinity of surface water is highest in the Eastern boundary currents such as the gulf stream
c. Circulation extends from the surface to 2500 m
d. The circulation is caused by icebergs
e. Western boundary currents tend to be narrower, deeper, and swifter than Eastern Boundary Currents
E
In Earth's southern hemisphere:
a. Western boundary currents in the ocean bring warm water southward
b. Winds rotate clockwise around low pressure systems
c. Winds only blow from north to south
d. Circulation in large scale oceanic gyres is clockwise
e. A and B
E
Western boundary currents are
a. The Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Currents
b. Fast flowing relative to Eastern boundary currents
c. Play a role in ocean heat transport
d. Are narrow and fast relative to Eastern Boundary Currents
e. All of the above
E
Wind blowing toward this low pressure system:
a. Follow path to the right
b. Follow path to the left
c. Follow straight down
d. Start going to the right but then change to the left
B
The Great North Pacific Garbage Patch:
a. Is caused by upwelling of cold water over the equator
b. Is held together in part by the North Pacific Gyre
c. Circulates in a clockwise direction
d. Is not influenced by the Coriolis effect
e. B and C
E
Nearly 90% of global fish production occurs:
a. In pelagic zones of the open ocean
b. In polar regions of deep water
c. In shelf and coastal upwelling regions
d. In mid-gyre regions
C
There is more dissolved CO2 in oceanic deepwater than in surface water because:
a. Photosynthesis occurs primarily in deepwater
b. Organisms that respire produce CO2 in deep water
c. Photosynthesis in surface water uses CO2
d. B and C
D
The room shows ONE convention cell that transports heat from left to right, with hot air moving to the right, above, and cold air moving to the left. What does that convection cell best represent, by analogy?
a. The California Current
b. The Hadley Cell
c. The East Australian Current
B
Large scale atmospheric winds and pressure systems:
a. Are part of the transport of heat from low to high latitudes
b. Are influenced by the Coriolis effect
c. Have a regular pattern related to rising and descending winds at certain latitudes
d. All of the above
e. None
D
Large scale gyres such as the North Atlantic Gyre
a. Transport heat from the tropics to the poles
b. Involve Western Boundary currents and Eastern Boundary Currents
c. Have a clockwise flow direction in the northern hemisphere
d. All of the above
D
During the course of the year, Earth is closest to the Sun
a. During periods of full moon
b. At no time of the year, Earth is always the same distance from the sun
c. In January, not long after the December solstice
d. during the day
C
One cause of high salinity in North Atlantic Surface Water:
a. High pressure and clear skies around 30N
b. Strong geostrophic flow, which keeps water in the N. Atlantic Gyre
c. Evaporation
d. All of the above
D
Salinity of ocean surface water is:
a. Influenced by evaporation
b. The same throughout the world ocean
c. Normally higher than salinity of deep water
d. A and B
A
Health of Global fisheries:
a. Overfishing has been a problem since the time of the Romans
b. Technical advances such as refrigerators and large floating "fish factories" are one of the factors that have led to overfishing
c. A and B
d. None of the above
B
Which of the following is/are true?
a. Declining fish production is unlikely to have a major impact on the global economy
b. World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scale fishing techniques will likely allow fish catch to increase for another 50 years
c. In the World Ocean, large fish are present in the same numbers today as they were 50 years ago
d. None of the above
D
Which of the following is/are true?
a. Aquaculture represents a substantial and growing part of world fish production
b. World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scale fishing techniques will likely allow fish catch to increase for another 50 years
c. In the World ocean, large fish are present in the same numbers today as they were 50 years ago
d. None of the above
A
Which of the following are true:
a. One possible solution to overfishing is to assign Fishing Rights and Trade them Like Pollution Credits
b. Fishing rights are already being used for Pacific Halibut and Striped Bass
c. New Zealand has a system of Fishing Rights in Place
d. Fisherman in several coastal regions of Spain have developed a system of fishing rights on their own
e. All of the above
E
Which factors promote phytoplankton growth and blooms
a. Light and upwelling of deep water
b. Nutrients such as Nitrogen and Phosphorous
c. A strong, well developed thermocline
d. a and b
e. b and c
D
The ocean appears blue-green because:
a. Seawater absorbs blue and green light and reflects all other wavelengths
b. Our eyes are sensitive only to wavelengths of blue and green light
c. Blue and green wavelengths penetrate more deeply and are reflected by water molecules
d. Red light is absorbed at shallow depths in seawater
e. C and D above
E
When a red fish swim into deep water (below 200m) what color does it appear to be?
a. Red
b. Blue
c. Orange
d. Gray
e. Pink
D
Which statement(s) below is/are correct?
a. Coccolithophorids make their skeletons (or tests) from calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
b. Diatoms are composed of organic matter and silia (opal) skeletons (tests)
c. Dinoflagellates evolved before diatoms and coccolithophorids and have no mineral skeleton or test.
d. Coccolithophorids, diatoms, and dinoflagellates are examples of phytoplankton
e. All of the above
E
Which of the following is not commonly associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs)
a. Dinoflagellates
b. Coccolithophorids
c. Neurotoxins secreted by phytoplankton
d. High nutrients (eutrophication)
e. None of the above
B
The Energy Cycle of life in the ocean involves plankton, which convert sunlight to organic matter. Organic matter is eventually broken down by bacteria and other organisms. This recycles the nutrients for further plankton growth.
a. True
b. False
c. Other
A
Red Tides
a. Typically last from 3 to 4 months
b. Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
c. Occur mainly during the summer (water temperature has to be warm)
d. Can be caused by or exacerbated by aquaculture (organized farming of something in the water)
e. All but (a)
E
Red Tides may be caused by:
a. A rapid surge of nutrients into the photic zone
b. Longer days and more sunlight
c. Warm water (which may increase reproduction rate)
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
D
Which of the following are correct?
a. UWA Professor Carlos Duarte says mesopelagic fish constitute 95% of the world's fish biomass
b, The mesopelagic layer of the ocean is between 100 m and 1000
c. The mesopelagic layer may play a significant role in the functioning of the ocean, affecting the flow of carbon and oxygen in the ocean...
d. Most mesopelagic species tend to feed near the surface at night, and move to deeper layers in the daytime to avoid birds.
e. All of the above
E
Latitudes above about 40 degrees N and S receive more solar energy than they lose.
A) True
B) False
B
Uneven heating of the Earth's surface results in
A) belts of low and high pressure, which generate a three-dimensional pattern of winds
B) winds that include Easterlies, Westerlies, and upper atmosphere winds such as the Jet Stream
C) warmer conditions in polar regions than in tropical regions
D) a surplus of solar energy received in the tropics relative to high latitudes.
E) all but C
E
The ocean is stratified (layered) with the densest water below and less dense water above.
A) True
B) False
A
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere (with the correct latitudes)?
A) Tropic (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°)
B) Tropic (0°-30°); Polar (60°-90°); Hadley (30° -60°)
C) Hadley (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°)
D) Polar (0°-30°); Hadley (30°-60°); Ferrel (60°-90°)
E) None of the above
C
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain oxygen for respiration
A) True
B) False
B
Which of the following statements is correct about Earth?
A) Incoming energy from the sun is the primary means of heating the tropics.
B) Heat transfer from low to high latitudes plays an important role in the pattern of ocean currents and large scale winds
C) Ocean currents and winds transfer heat from low to high latitudes
D) all of the above
E) none of the above.
D
The Coriolis effect plays a role in which of the following:
A) Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the right in the N. hemisphere
B) Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
C) Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
D) Formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
E) all of the above
E
Large-scale gyres in the major oceans involve surface currents that flow in a counterclockwise direction in both the northern and southern hemispheres
A) True
B) False
B
Global oceanic circulation involving deep water and surface water motion acts to regulate Earth's surface heat and climate.
A) True
B) False
A
Deep-water ocean circulation is driven by temperature and salinity contrasts between water masses.
A) True
B) False
A
The Coriolis Effect arises from conservation of momentum and Earth's rotation
A) True
B) False
A
Large-scale gyres in the major oceans bring warm water from the tropics to the poles and cold water from the poles to the tropics.
A) True
B) False
A
Water piles up in the interior of a gyre, causing a slight surface slope and pressure gradient oriented toward the outside of the gyre.
A) True
B) False
A
Today, oceanic deepwater is formed in
A) the Red Sea
B) the Weddell Sea
C) the Norwegian-Greenland Sea
D) A & C above
E) B & C above
E
Which of the following is/are true about the temperature-depth relationship for seawater ?
A) Tropical, Polar, and Temperate regions are similar.
B) Polar regions have the largest temperature difference between surface water and deep water
C) Tropical regions have the highest surface water temp.
D) Deep water has about the same temperature for each latitudinal zone.
E) C & D
E
The Gulf Stream
A) is an eastern boundary current
B) is part of a Hadley cell
C) is a cold, deep water current
D) A & C
E) none of the above.
E
Wind circulation around a low pressure system in the N. Hemisphere is clockwise
A) True
B) False
B
Red Tides
A) Typically last from 3 to 4 months
B) Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
C) Occur mainly during the winter
D) Are normally caused by wind
E) All but (A)
B
Marine phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms. In the photic zone of the ocean their growth rate can be limited by:
A) availability of nutrients
B) availability of light
C) availability of water
D) (A) and (B)
D
Phytoplankton are photosynthetic algae (plants) that live in the ocean's photic zone and are an important source of energy (food) for nearly all ocean life
A) True
B) False
A
Which of the following is/are true:
A) Ocean deep water is rich in nutrients that are essential to phytoplankton growth.
B) Deep water normally flows up into the photic zone in the open ocean.
C) Phytoplankton growth rate in polar regions is the same all year round.
D) (B) and (C)
A