40 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 12 For Quiz

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Fossil Fuel
fuel derived from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago
Nonrenewable Energy Resource
an energy source with a finite supply, primarily the fossil fuels and nuclear fuels
Nuclear Fuel
fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy
Turbine
a device with blades that can be turned by water,wind,steam, or exhaust gas from combustion that turns a generator in an electricity-producing plant
Electrical Grid
a network of interconnected transmission lines that joins power plants together and links them with end users of electricity
Combined Cycle
a power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity. Natural gas is combusted, and the combustion products turn a gas turbine. In addition, the waste heat from this process boils water, which turns a conventional steam turbine.
Capacity
the max. electrical output (in reference to an electricity-generating plant)
Capacity Factor
the fraction of time a power plant operates in a year most plants at 0.9
Cogeneration
the use of fuel to generat electricity and produce heat. (also known as "combined heat and power")
Coal
a solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials preserved 280-360 million years ago
Peat (coal)
partially decayed plant matter found in bogs
Lignite (coal)
compressed peat
Sub-bituminous/Bituminous (coal)
compressed ligmite
Anthracite
the cleanest-burning coal; almost pure carbon, compressed bituminous
Petroleum
a fossil fuel that occurs in underground deposits, composed of liquid mix of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur, formed by phytoplankton millions of years ago
Crude Oil
Liquid petroleum removed from the ground. Oil pumped up fresh from a reserve (heat it to make diff. substances ex: gassoline, asphalt, butane)
Natural Gas
A gas 80-95% methane (CH_4) and 5-20% ethane, propane, and butane. (cleanest of fossil fuels; used primarily for electricity generation, and industrial processes; compressed can be used for vehicles but pipeline transport.)
Oil Sands
slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed w/ sand, water, and clay
Bitumen
a degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria
CTL (coal to liquid)
the process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel, emits high levels of greenhouse gas
Hubbert Curve
A bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a max. and when the world will run out of oil
Peak Oil
the point at which half of the total oil supply is used
Fission
a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat
Fuel Rod
a cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel with a nuclear reactor
Control Rod
a cylindrical device inserted b/t the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction
Radioactive Waste
nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity
Becquerel (Bq)
unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays; 1Bq= decay of 1 atom or nucleus per second
Nuclear Fusion
a reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forces together to produce heavier nuclei
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
Energy Quality
The ease with which an energy source can be used for work
Refined Oil
petroleum is burned for different lengths of time to create different compounds, tar and asphalt, gasoline, diesel, and kerosene
Compressed Natural Gas
Methane, compressed in tank in back of vehicle, 80% decrease in Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions
Nuclear Fusion
2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
High-Level Waste
Waste from fuel rods
Low-Level waste
Waste in the form of contaminated protective clothing, tools, rags, and other items used in plant maintenance
Uranium mine tailings
Residue left after uranium ore is mined and enriched
Commercial energy sources
those that arebought and sold, such as coal, oil and natural gas.
Subsistence energy sources
those gathered by individuals for their own use such as wood, charcoal and animal waste.
Cogeneration
using a fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat
Methane Hydrates
Cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas.