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Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System

Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System Student Post-Test Questions
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The heart has its own special covering, a lining of two layers of fibrous tissue called the
pericardium.
The wall of each chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue usually referred to as the
myocardium.
The outer layer of the pericardium is called the
parietal pericardium.
Structures that separate the chambers and permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called
valves.
The aorta carries blood out of which chamber?
left ventricle
Which blood vessels return venous blood to the right atrium?
superior and inferior venae cavae
The four structures that compose the conduction system of the heart are the
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers.
What is the term used to describe the severe chest pain that occurs when the myocardium is deprived of oxygen?
angina
Microscopic vessels that carry blood from small arteries to small veins are
capillaries
The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the
tunica adventitia.
Semilunar valves can be found in which blood vessel?
vein
Blood flow from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body and back to the heart is called
systemic circulation.
During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein?
It flows into the inferior vena cava.
The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart arises in the
SA node.
A graphic record of the heart's electrical activity is a(n)
ECG.
The normal ECG is composed of the following except
E wave.
A type of abnormal heart sound that may signify incomplete closing of the valves is
a heart murmur.
Cardiac output is determined by
stroke volume and heart rate.
Blood pressure is measured with the aid of an apparatus known as a(n)
sphygmomanometer.
The condition in which the number of red blood cells increases beyond normal and thus increases blood viscosity is called
polycythemia.