Terms in this set (22)
is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay
a process that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by emitting radiation
a type of nuclear radiation consisting of two protons and two neutrons
the product isotope has two fewer protons & two fewer neutrons than the reactant isotope
a high-speed electron with a 1- charge that is emitted during radioactive decay
his a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
types of nuclear reactions
fusion, fission, radioactive decay
Types of nuclear decay
alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay
nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
When nuclear radiation exceeds background levels
it can damage cells and tissues
Effects of Alpha particles
fast, but can be blocked by paper, cause in jury like a bad burn
Compare the effects of Beta particles to alpha and gamma
Beta does more damage than alpha, but less than gamma. Gamma rays cause extensive damage
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
How are nuclear decay rates different from chemical rates
Nuclear decay rates are constant regardless of temperature, pressure or surface area of the reactant (ex: uranium-238). Chemical reactions are affected by local conditions (temp, press, surface area, etc.)
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
fusion is the process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
Chain reaction (nuclear)
a self-sustaining fission process caused by the production or neutrons that proceed to split other nuclei
Chain reaction (fission)
In a chain reaction, one or more of the neutrons released in fission goes on to cause fission of another nucleus, which releases more neutrons which can then cause further fission.
The minimum mass of a fissionable isotope that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
Fusion reactors have the advantage of
low fuel, little radioactive waste
nuclear fusion occurring at or close to room temperature. Claims for its discovery in 1989 are generally held to have been mistaken.
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