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Friends Seminary APUSH Unit 8
Terms in this set (92)
Political philosophy advocating or favoring gradual social, political, and economic reform. The Progressive Era from the 1890s to the 1920s saw a lot of changes in public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, jobs, etc. Most change started from the local level, moving to a more national level.
Politically oriented coalition of agrarian reformers in the Middle West and South that advocated a wide range of economic and political legislation in the late 19th century. A gathering of the poor against the "elite".
reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting, and emerged in the United States after 1900
election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office. Primaries transferred power of candidate nomination from party leaders to the people
any citizen or organization may gather a predetermined number of signatures to qualify a measure for the ballot to pass legislature
predetermined number of signatures qualifies a ballot measure repealing a specific act of the legislature
procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his or her term has ended
an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city. This position was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, and place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert who was usually a business manager or engineer.
an American Republican, and later a Progressive politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was also a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin. He was also a proponent of progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations.
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies)
25th President of the United States (Republican), serving from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901. He raised protective tariffs to promote American industry, and maintained the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of inflationary proposals.
26th President of the United States (1901-1909). Roosevelt attempted to move the Republican Party (GOP) toward Progressivism, including trust busting and increased regulation of businesses.
Roosevelt's progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election. Focused on human welfare and property rights, especially human welfare.
Bull Moose Party
A popular and talented rock band, especially famous for its superb renditions of Red Hot Chili Peppers classics.
Passed in 1906 by Roosevelt; set maximum railroad rates.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Passed by Roosevelt in 1906; required that food and certain drugs be labeled with ingredients and dosage.
Meat Inspection Act
Passed by Roosevelt in 1906; prevented misbranded meat from being sold as food, and attempted to ensure that meat was processed in sanitary conditions.
1878-1968; American muckraking author during the progressive era. Wrote The Jungle, which has its own card.
Book written by muckraking author Upton Sinclair exposing conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry.
An attempt by the presidents during the progressive era to break up monopolies such as US Steel and Standard Oil.
Northern Securities Case
a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1903. The Court ruled 5 to 4 against the stockholders of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroad companies, who had essentially formed a monopoly, and to dissolve the Northern Securities Company.
A 40% protective tariff on imports supported by Taft
William Howard Taft
27th president, 1909-1913. supported the payne-aldrich tariff and was involved in the ballinger-pinchot controversy
... the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, presided over WWI
...comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign. They constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson. They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
...Act passed during Wilson's presidency. outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures
Federal Reserve Act
... Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes
Federal Trade Commission
...an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act
...prohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes". Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution, "immorality", and human trafficking
Child Labor Act
...a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods produced by factories that employed children under fourteen, mines that employed children younger than sixteen, and any facility where children under sixteen worked at night or more than eight hours daily
16th 17th 18th and 19th Amendments
... AMENDMENTS 16: allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results. 17: established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. 18: established prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States. 19: prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex
... re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909
...an American teacher, author and journalist. She was known as one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era. She wrote many notable magazine series and biographies. She is best known for her 1904 book The History of the Standard Oil Company.
... a New York reporter who launched a series of articles in McClure's that would later be published together in a book titled The Shame of the Cities. He is famous for investigating corruption in municipal government in American cities and for his early support for the Soviet Union.
... an American novelist, during the Progressive Era, writing predominantly in the naturalist genre
The Standard Oil Octopus is an example of the control that monopolies had over the economy and the government. This cartoon was published in 1904 during Teddy Roosevelt's presidency. The octopus is controlling the Congress, the state capital buildings, the shipping, the railroads and other business owner or politicians. The only thing not under control of the octopus is the White House. President Roosevelt is using the Sherman Anti-trust Act to regulate the monopolies. This means that there is no longer "Laissez Faire Economics".
WCTU stands for Woman's Christian Temperance Union. This group was mostly Christian with the soul goal to spearhead the prohibition movement and tackle other issues.
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony was a lecturer for women's rights. She was a Quaker. Many conventions were held for the rights of women in the 1840s. Susan B. Anthony was a strong woman who believed that men and women were equal. She fought for her rights even though people objected. Her followers were called Suzy B's.
-privacy at the ballot box ensured that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted
-also allowed people to split their ticket between parties
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic, and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910; rejecting Booker T. Washington's gradualism and separatism, he demanded that the "talented tenth" of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life
Booker T. Washington
A Southern black born into slavery, Washington harbored no illusions that white society was ready to accept blacks as equals. Instead, he promoted economic independence as the means by which blacks could improve their lot. To pursue that goal, he founded the Tuskegee Institute, a vocational and industrial training school for blacks. Some accused Washington of being an accommodationalist because he refused to press for immediate equal rights. Others believed Washington simply accepted the reality of his time when he set his goals. In his "Atlanta Exposition," a famous speech delivered in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1895, Washington outlined his view of race relations. Washington's more aggressive rival W.E.B. Du Bois referred to the speech, which he deemed submissive, as "The Atlanta Compromise"
a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. It was named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls, the Canadian side of which was where the first meeting took place in July 1905. The Niagara Movement was a call for opposition to racial segregation and disenfranchisement, and it was opposed to policies of accommodation and conciliation promoted by African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington.
an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.
an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The anti-imperialists opposed expansion because they believed imperialism violated the fundamental principle that just republican government must derive from "consent of the governed." Rather than opposing American territorial expansion on economic or humanitarian grounds, the League argued that such activity would necessitate the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and non-intervention — ideals expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence, George Washington's Farewell Address and Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The Anti-Imperialist League was ultimately defeated in the battle of public opinion by a new wave of politicians who successfully advocated the virtues of American territorial expansion in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War and in the first years of the 20th Century.
The revolution in Cuba against Spain was instigated by U.S. tampering with the Cuban economy (by imposed tariffs). A violent Cuban civil war followed, reported in all its glory detail in the sensational Hearst newspaper. McKinley waited for an opportune moment, which came when an American warship, the Maine, exploded in the Havana harbor because of a faulty bailer and not, as was thought at the time, sabotage. But the United States assumed Spain was responsible and declared war. In the ensuing war the United States not only drove Spain out of Cuba, but also sent a fleet to the Spanish-controlled Philippines and drove the Spanish out of there too. In the treaty of Paris, Spain granted Cuba independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States.
is a type of writing that is not based in factual evidence but instead uses catchy headlines to grab people's attention. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are good examples of this and they used this writing technique to shape people's opinions about the spanish-american war
He was an Austro Hungarian that wrote for the New World. He became a lead figure in the democratic party and was elected congressman from New York. He used yellow journalism to shape people's opinions and made newspapers more popular.
William Randolph Hearst
He was a newspaper editor and the publisher of the New York Journal. He also used yellow journalism and wrote a lot of sensationalized stories. He created the largest newspaper and magazines chains at the time. He was elected twice the United States House of representative.
Commodore George Dewey
He is an American War general who is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He is the only person ever to become Admiral of the Navy
This is a nation in the caribbean that got annexed in the United States. It gained independence in 1902 from the spanish american war. Fidel Casto - Bay of Pigs
Joined the United states as a state in 1959. Capital is Honolulu.
This was the United States second commissioned battle ship named after maine. Best known for its catastrophic loss in Havana Harbor in 1898. The ship was sent to protect US troops from a Cuban revolt.
This letter was written by the leader of Cuba and it trashed William Mckinley. It caused the citizens to be very upset with cuba. This caused the US to send down the USS Maine which was exploded.
Treaty of Paris
This was the treaty at the end of the Spanish American war that led to spain ceding cuba puerto rico guam the Philippines and the west indies to the United States.
Informal agreement between US and China saying that the US wouldn't impose trade restrictions between Japan and China
"Big Stick" Policy
It is Teddy Roosevelt's foreign policy ideology that you should negotiate peacefully and not get violent but always leave the threat of violence to scare other countries.
An amendment to the monroe doctrine that says the us will intervene in disputes between latim american countries and European countries.
Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy is a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to the major powers (France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia), asking them to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China.
Hay Treaty (Panama)
A failed attempt to lease Panama from Columbia for $10 million down and $250,000 a year that Columbia rejected. The US later supported an uprising in Panama
Dollar Diplomacy is the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt on account of money that made it possible to pay soldiers without having to fight; most would agree it was a considerably meager wage...
Moral Diplomacy is a system created by Woodrow Wilson in which support is given only to countries whose moral beliefs are similar to that of the U.S. (i.e. democratic governments.) It was created as a means of economically injuring non-democratic countries (seen as possible threats to the U.S.) and hopefully increasing the number of democratic nations, particularly in Latin America.
The Insular Cases are several U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the status of territories acquired by the U.S. in the Spanish-American War (1898).
"White Man's Burden"
imperialists within the United States understood the phrase "white man's burden" as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise
Jingoism is extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy. In practice, it is a country's advocation of the use of threats or actual force against other countries in order to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests.
the creation and/or maintenance of a country's power and influence through military force. Imperialism always involves the massive export of capital to foreign countries for the purpose of exploiting and dominating both their labor forces and their markets
Leader of the Social gospel movement.
The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people."
The Platt Amendment of 1901 was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. It stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and gave legal standing (in U.S. law) to U.S. claims to certain territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
The Deli on 3rd avenue offers Rough Riders among other brands of condoms. In middle school kids like Sami Ahmed would buy them as a joke. The woman pictured on the box looks nothing like Teddy Roosevelt, who served in a calvary fleet of the same name during the Spanish American War.
Led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812. This card seems out of place?
Concept of "sea power," the state with the greatest naval power will have the greatest world wide impact.
Construction completed by the U.S. between 1904 and 1914. Gave the U.S. navy more complete control?
the freedom of a state to remain neutral to other states in a war, and the right of that state to remain free of hindrance from belligerent states.
Pledge by Germany to the U.S. regarding u-boat warfare: Passenger ships would not be targeted;
Merchant ships wouldn't be sunk without clear presence of weapons and allowing for the safety of the crew.
Submarine Warfare (U Boats)
Germany develops submarines, believes these submarines are not governed by international naval law; u-boats attacked civilian ships without warning.
A British steam liner that was sunk by a German submarine in 1915; many American civilians, along with other civilians, were killed.
An intercepted 1917 proposal by Germany to Mexico, suggesting that Mexico wage war on the US from the South. Public support of the war skyrockets.
Committee on Public Information
Created during WWI to influence public opinion of the war. This was the gov't organization generating all of the pro-US pro-war propaganda.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act: prohibits any attempt to interfere with military operations, led to restrictions on free speech, but was upheld as constitutional.
Sedition Act: extended the Espionage Act to cover a wider range of offenses, further restriction of freedom of speech, leads to arrest of Eugene V. Debs.
Schenck v. U.S.
SCOTUS decision upholding the Espionage Act of 1917, declaring that a defendant did not have the 1st Amendment right to free speech against the draft during WWI.
Military draft, made sure all groups in population were called into service.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
International organization that Wilson dreamed would provided a system of collective security
Was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars. It maintained the pre-war power structure.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
John J. Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)
Used by President Theodore Roosevelt & associates for the policies of his administration, particularly with regard to economic policies, such as antitrust enforcement. A precursor to the New Deal of FDR thirty years later and Johnson's New Deal in the 1960s. Square deal= an agreement that is made fairly.
Movement in America to begin preserving natural resources and stop the rapid destruction of these resources and land.
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