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Biology quiz 3/8
Terms in this set (41)
Fats are broken into saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Which of these explains the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fats have single bonds, unsaturated fats have double bonds
Animals store most of their excess energy reserves as _______ because
fat; they store twice as much energy per gram.
One difference between carbohydrates and lipids is that
Carbohydrates will dissolve in water but not lipids.
Living cells use ____________ as their main source of energy.
Most biological macromolecules contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Which of these has the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio?
A sequence of nucleotides found in the DNA of this chromosome codes for a specific protein or trait. This segment of DNA is known as a(n)
Your eye color, sex, and hair color are all determined by the DNA in your genes. Where are these genes located?
Enzymes and other macromolecules produced by DNA are...
What are the building blocks of DNA
Codons are important in the composition of proteins, because each codon calls for a specific ____________.
DNA to protein process
Genes provide instructions on how to build a protein. DNA determines mRNA, which determines tRNA, which determines the amino acid. It is the sequence of the amino acids that determine how that protein will fold up and take shape, and a protein's shape determines it's function in the cell.
DNA, amino acids, and proteins are all molecules that play a vital role in your life, even though you have never seen them. In fact, these three types of molecules are tightly linked. What is the relationship between them?
DNA codes call for specific amino acids, which are assembled into proteins needed by your body.
A ___ chain is a sequence of amino acids that is the foundation for the basic structure of a protein.
The sequence of ___ in a DNA molecule determines the protein that will be produced.
What is DNA made of?
The same 4 nucleotides
Which type of macromolecule is made of amino acids?
What is a major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes have no nucleus.
What cellular organelle is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids?
This organelle is found in plant cells. The function of this organelle is to collect solar energy and use this to produce food, or glucose, for the plant. This organelle is the
packages of DNA
DNA's structure is what?
made up of phosphate group, sugar, and a nitrogen base.
DNA codes for mRNA codes for Proteins ---> cells ---> bodies
Passes DNA gene info from nucleus to cytoplasm. mRNA copies DNA.
1. double strand unzips 2. matches RNA bases with DNA strand. builds another strand with RNA nucleotides, new RNA molecule made 3. mRNA leaves nucleus, and DNA rezipes and remains the way it was
DNA ---> (transcription) ---> mRNA --->tRNA
1. mRNA attaches to ribosome (rRNA) 2. tRNA matches with codon on the mRNA bringing amino acid 3. tRNA matches with next codon 4. first tRNA transfers the amino acid to the second forming a peptide bond between the amino acid 5. proccess repeats until a stop codon is reached
3 nucleotides in the mRNA
matches the codon on the mRNA molecule, block of 3 tRNA bases
Process to a trait
DNA (seg called gene) - transcription (DNA used as a template to make mRNA)->mRNA -Translation (mRNA used as a template to make an amino acid chain using tRNA/rRNA)--> Amino acid sequence ---> codes for certain protein --> Trait
a base is lost or deleted
an extra base is added
the reading frame changes, changing the amino acid sequence
one base is substituted for another
changes amino acid
does not change the amino acid
changes the amino acid to a stop codon
It is important that cells make the correct proteins necessary for survival. Which of these is true concerning the processes of transcription and translation?
The processes of transcription and translation are the same for all living organisms.
Once proteins have been produced at the ribosomes, what two organelles work together to aid in the secretion process described above?
Golgi apparatus and rough ER
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