40 terms

Genetics (AP Bio)

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cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
law of independent assortment
random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.
homologous chromosome
Chromosomes with matching information
gamete
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
haploid
1 set of chromosomes (half the "normal" number) GAMETES
diploid
2 sets of chromosomes - the normal number - SOMATIC/BODY CELLS
meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
crossing over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
genetics
Scientific study of heredity
dominant
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
allele
An alternative form of a gene.
heredity
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
non-disjunction
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate; causes Down Syndrome
homozygous
two of the same allele
heterozygous
two different alleles
genotype
An organism's genetic makeup
phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
law of segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
codominance
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
incomplete dominance
Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
Mendel
Father of Genetics; responsible of the Law of Inheritance
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
homozygous recessive
aa
Homozygous dominant
Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and dominant (AA)
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait (Aa)
dihybrid cross
Cross or mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
monohybrid cross
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
codominance
A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
Multiple allele traits
traits that are controlled by more than two alleles (ex. ABO blood typing)
Polygenic Traits
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
Sex Linked Traits
Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes.
Hemophilia
An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
Epistasis
A type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene.
Chi Square
relating to a statistical method assessing the goodness of fit between observed values and those expected theoretically.
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape
Environmentally Influenced Genes
traits that may be 'turned on" or turned off" by something in the environment
Dihybrid Cross
a mating experiment between two organisms that are heterozygous for two traits; results in a 9:3:3:1 ratio
Wisconsin Fast Plants
Model organisms for genetic crosses in the classroom
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