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The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called ________, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.
Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?
Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement?
B. F. Skinner
The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________.
dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning
Which of the following statements is correct?
A psychologist has no medical training.
Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?
The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying:
how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.
Freud said phobias were ________ whereas Watson said phobias were ________.
repressed conflicts; learned
Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a ________.
How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology?
In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was overseen by ________.
The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they:
examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.
On a television talk show, an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a ________.
Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________.
involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)
The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is, "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?
"What is a psychiatric social worker?"
Who was an early proponent of functionalism?
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what early field of psychology?
Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
Freud stressed the importance of ________.
Early childhood experiences
A good control group ________.
Holds constant all variables in the experiment
________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.
Sally proposes the idea that one's sexual history prior to marriage may be linked to whether one ends up getting divorced. This best represents which step of the scientific method?
forming a hypothesis
Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the _________ is held constant.
The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called ________.
Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ________.
naturalistic observation method
A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
dependent: weight; independent: exercise
In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ________.
The number of collisions
Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should ________.
draw a representative sample among college juniors
________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group, but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group.
A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?
Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?
In random assignment, each participant has an equal chance for each condition.
In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the ________.
What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?
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