68 terms

supranational organizations unit

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supranational organization
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives. can transcend national boundaries and regime type. can be global and regional.. ex: EU, organization of petroleum exporting countries, UN, international monetary fund, world bank, north atlantic free trade agreement, north atlantic treaty organization
devolution
the process of decentralizing the unitary state to share policy-making power with regional governments
integration
process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout
United nations of this unit
britain, russia, china(all permanent members of the Security Council), mexico, iran, nigeria(current non-permanent members of the security council) --193 members today
how UN came about
charter sign in San Fran in 1945(49 original members), it replaced the failed league of nations after WWII ended.
UN is an umbrella organization
has many sub-organizations that promote the general welfare of the world's citizens and monitor/aid world trade and other economic activites
how to get into UN
have to be a sovereign nation..1) apply for membership and make a declaration accepting obligations of the charter 2)the security council adopts a resolution recommending the general assembly admit the country to membership. 3)general assembly adopts a resolution admitting the country
purpose of UN
keep peace throughout the world, develop friendly relations among nations, to help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other's rights and freedoms..to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals....problem: 193 members with diff goals
UN funding
relies on dues and voluntary contributions from states..payment of member states is based on the relative size of their economy..costs 15 bil to fund system for one year
6 mains bodies (many subsidary bodies, funds, institutes, entities)
security council, economic and social council, international court of justice, secretariat, trusteeship council, general assembly
non-main body organizations of the UN
UNESCO(UN educational, scientific, cultural org), world bank, IMF, WHO, WTO
economic and social council
promotes human rights and the general welfare of the individual. every member included, significant subsidiary bodies
international court of justice
A division of the United Nations that settles legal disputes between states and gives opinions.. It is also called the World Court and it meets in the Hague in the Netherlands.
trusteeship council
still technically in existence even though it ended formal operations in 1994, Established to oversee transition of colonies to independence(self-government)
secretariat
does the day-to-day work of the UN, prepares all operations and tasks carried out by other main organs.
security council*
maintain international peace and security, investigative powers, regulate weapons proliferation, control economic sanctions, military action as needed (body responsible for making decisions) permanent members may veto a proposed peace-keeping action
general assembly*
the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ..comprises 193 members of UN, provides form of multilateral discussion of the international issues covered by the charter..meets in regular session from sept-dec and as required - both SC and GA select judges for international court of justice
world trade organization*
org of member-states that have agreed to rules of world trade among nations..responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements, settling disputes..encourages "multilateral trading system"..britain russia china mexico nigeria...iran is an observer
EU
UK only member of this course..euroskeptics are mostly conservative MP's who fear the loss of sovereignty through EU negotiations and common currency
EU motto
united in diversity
qualifications to join EU
stable and functioning democratic regime, market oriented economy, and agree to accept pre-existing EU laws and regulations
enlargement fatigue
lost enthusiasm/against further growth, the idea that the eu expanded too much and too quickly..decline in support for further enlargement
council of europe
An international organization founded in 1949 provided an opportunity for national leaders to meet...body to deliberate, not binding..did not have law making ability like EU
european coal and steel community
1951- used as a common market by 6 member countries (France, Italy, West Germany, Benelux countries-belgium, netherlands, luxembourg) for steel and coal products by eliminating tarriffs and other trade barriers
treaty of rome(european economic community)
1957 2 treaties that established European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community/ "Common Market" one of first supranationalist treates. Goal was to integrate economies and lower tariffs..."common market" of EEC-goal to eliminate old tariffs and create new/common ones
european community
EC, , An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1965 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993...gradual move beyond economic ties
treaty of the european union(maastrict treaty)
1992-..treaty created modern organization.. important new authority monetary policy, foreign affairs, national security, transportation, environment, tourism, etc...agreed on creation of the euro and three pillars or areas of authority
3 pillars
trade and economy(creation of european central bank), justice and home affairs (justice, border policy, immgration, terrorism)....and common defense, foreign & security policies
treaty of lisbon
2007, introduced sweeping reforms to account for enlarged EU..attempted to consolidate former treaties
democratic deficit
the loss of direct control of political decisions by the people(could result from the powershift from national to supranational institutions)
4 major bodies of the EU
the commission, the council of ministers, the european parliament, the european court of justice
the european commission
executive branch..members are appointed by national governments, 1 from each state, 5 year term, legislative powers, manages the budget, enforces laws with the european court of justice, international agreements
the council of the european union
legislative powers(passes laws), approves the budget, coordinates policy among EU states, develops foreign and defense policies (previously Council of Ministers and commonly known as EU Council)
the european parliament(power increased after treaty of lisbon)
directly elected by citizens, legislative powers(final approval with council of the EU), can dismiss The Commission(if not working democratically), debates and adopts EU budget with The Council..council can override rejection for proposal by unanimous vote
the european court of justice
enforces laws with The Commission, judicial review(common application in all member countries), one judge per country, cases decided by majority
"periphery" of europe
geographically on outside of europe, economically too...high debt, "piigs" portugal, italy, ireland, greece, spain
EU currency
increased power to set monetary policy(not fiscal), 17/27 eurozone members use the euro currency, considered 2nd most influential currency, european central bank manages EU monetary policy
sovereign debt crisis
Financial crisis due to excessive growth of public budget's deficit which has led to incapacity for payment of current liabilities and obtaining new loans from private banks or international institutions, such as the IMF, the World Bank or European Central Bank. began with near collapse of greek economy
common agricultural policy
1/2 of eu budget, farm subsidies for under-performing farms(often to rural development, not actual farms)..subsidizing young farmers
common defense policies
one of 3 pillars.no "european army"
european constitution
2004...to replace overlapping sets of treaties that govern member-states interactions and streamline decision making
economic structural adjustment
part of members of the EU's debts would be forgiven. it is controversial because stronger countries would be paying for the welfare of weaker ones. bailouts
monetary policy
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates. inflation/deflation..central bank
fiscal policy
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and govt spending. central goverment "original sin" of these 2 is uniting them in EU
sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
referendum
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
lisbon treaty
Reformation of the EU effective since 2009, that gave more power to the European Court of Justice, created a high representative to promote the EU's foreign policy, and redistributed voting weight based on population and size of country.
treaty of amsterdam
Treaty, concluded in 1997, that addressed issues left undone by the Maastricht Treaty & identified priority measures necessary to bring a single market in Europe fully into effect & to lay a solid foundation for both a single currency & an enlargement of the European Union into central & eastern Europe. set major policy iniatives for judicial affairs..aim to establish free movement of eu citizens and non-eu nationals throughout union
common market
a group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries
european council
(heads of state/government + President of European Commission + President of European Council) - no formal legislative power, but determines direction of the EU
o European Council ≠ EU Council
o The "Council of Europe" is not a body within the European Union
Schengen Area/Zone
The free movement of persons is a fundamental right guaranteed by the EU to its citizens. Enables citizens to cross internal borders without being subjected to border checks.
world bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
centrifugal forces
Forces that tend to divide a country., destabilizing forces that hurt the government and encourage the country to fall apart, country that is not well-organized could lose loyalty of its citizens, strong institutions may also challenge the government like Russian Orthodoxy in USSR, nationalism can hurt if people are more loyal to ethnicity than state,
centripetal forces
bind together the people of a state, nationalism, encourages allegiance to a single country, promotes loyalty and commitment, use of flags, rituals, holidays, etc., schools, armed forces, religion help to keep people in support, fast transportation, communication systems, NBCs
bureaucracy
A complex structure of offices, tasks, and rules in which employees have specific responsibilities and work within a hierarchy of authority. Government beauracracies are charged with implementing policies.
coinciding cleavages
when every dispute aligns the same groups against each other, this type of cleavage is likely to be explosive.
crosscutting cleavages
--occur when the various factors that make up an individual's social identity tend to pull that person in different political directions.
rule of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
technocrat
A type of bureaucrat in this era; an expert in a particular field
empirical values
facts, statistics..uses empirical evidence
normative values
An ethical approach that attempts to prescribe with ethical behaviors should be accepted or become cultural norms.
interest aggregation
how the interests, concerns, and demands of various individuals and groups in society are translated into policies and programs..political parties
interest articulation
the methods by which citizens and groups can express their desires and make demands upon government (e.g., political participation, lobbying, protest, etc.)
european monetary policy
EU- has power to set basic interest rates and other fiscal policies
farm subsides
guarantees of selling goods at high prices
european monetary union
the agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system.
social market economy
Economy seeking a middle path between socialism and laissez-faire economic liberalism (i.e. a mixed economy).
europe at the brink documentary
Wall Street Journal editors and reporters examine the origins of Europe's debt crisis and why it spread with such ferocity to engulf much of the continent and threaten the entire world.