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46 terms

Child Psychology con't 6

Piaget and Vygotsky
STUDY
PLAY
Cognition
higher-order mental processes
Equilibration
(Piaget) self-regulation in which individuals naturally seek to maintain or restore balance w/in their cognitive system
constructivism
idea that children actively construct their knowledge of the world
Sensorimotor schemes
(Piaget) skilled and generalizable action patterns by which infants abt on and understand the world
Intentional behavior
(Piaget) the goal exist prior to the action selected to achieve it. *Separate means and ends
Mental representation
use of symbols to picture and act on the world internally
Object permanence
objects have a permanent existence. (Sensorimotor)
A-not-B error
infants search in the original location where an object was, rather than in most recent hiding place
Decentering
gradual decline in egocentrism
Egocentrism
all about self
Invariants
aspects of the world that remain the same even though other aspects have changed
Deferred imitation
imitation of a model observed in the past
Symbolic function
ability to use one thing as a symbol to represent something else
Symbolic play
child uses one thing in deliberate pretense to stand for something else
Dual representation
realizing 1 object can be represented in two ways simultaneously
Qualitative identity
knowledge that the qualitative nature of something is not changed by a change in its appearance
Egocentric speech
tendency for preoperational children to assume that listeners know everything that they know
Centration
young children's tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time
Conservation
knowledge that the quantitative properties of an abject or collection of objects are not changed by a change in appearance
Operations
various forms of mental action through which older children solve problems and reason logically
Reversibility
power of operations to correct for potential disturbances and thus arrive at correct solutions to problems
Class inclusion
knowledge that a subclass cannot be larger that its superordinate class
Seriation
ability to order stimuli along some quantitative dimension
Transitivity
ability to combine relations logically to deduce necessary conclusions
Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
form of problem solving characterized by the ability to generate and test hypotheses and draw logical conclusions
Stage theory
qualitative change is said to occur across an invariant sequence of stages
Ontogenetic development
development across years of a person's life
Microgenetic development
moment-to-moment learning of individuals as they work on specific problems
Phylogenetic development
development of species
Cultural/historical development
development over decades and centuries and leaves a legacy of tools and artifacts, values, and practices
Zone of Proximal development
(Vygotsky) distance b/t what a child can accomplish independently and what the child can accomplish w/the help of an adult or peer
Scaffolding
adult adjusts the level of help provided in relation to the child's level of performance
Guided participation
young children become competent by participating in everyday activities under the guidance of more experienced partners
Higher mental functions
complex mental processes that are intentional, self-regulated, and mediated by language and other sign systems
Pretend play
symbolic play other than object play
Solitary pretense
children pretend by themselves
Sociodramatic play
pretend play where individuals enact social roles and themes
Collective monologue
(Piaget) young children use egocentric speech with each other during play. *noncommunication
Private speech
(Vygotsky) children's self talk
Sociogenesis
acquiring knowledge or skills through social interactions
Discovery learning
children learn by acting on the world individually, not by passively taking in info
Assisted discovery
children learn through interactions b/t teachers and students as well as b/t students
Peer learning
(Piaget) teaching and learning takes place b/t peers with lesser and greater knowledge
Sociocognitive conflict
(Piaget) cognitive conflict that happens during social interaction when one's way of thinking is challenged
Peer collaboration
(Vygotsky) cooperative learning takes place when peers of roughly equal cognitive ability work together to solve a problem
Intersubjectivity
commitment to find common ground on which to build shared understanding